No you can't. The reason is KeyPair associated to an instance cannot be replicated or replaced. It is a one time thing.
There is an outside chance of recovery, if it's an EBS boot AMI, here you can stop it and then take a snapshot of the volume. And then create a new volume from it. And be able to use it back to start the old instance, create a new image, or recover data.
This comes with risk of losing your data at ephemeral storage