Here is an approach which you can try. I have written a Powershell step for TeamCity that queries the JIRA API to get all issues with the Fixed In version equivalent to the version number that TeamCity is building, and then querying the JIRA API again to get the issue details so that I can then build the release notes in Markdown, which then gets passed into Octopack to embed in the Nuget package. Then when I go into Octopus, I can see all the included ticket numbers and summaries, grouped by issue type (bug fix, new feature, improvement etc).
Given that it is very straightforward to create an Octopus step using Powershell, and the ease of use of the JIRA API, you ought to be able to do something similar from Octopus, but if possible, I would recommend making it part of your build process rather than your deployment process.
I hope the above information would be helpful for you.