What is the meaning of in R

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Would like to understand the meaning of ~. in R. This is an example from kknn function:

library(kknn)

data(iris)
m <- dim(iris)[1]
val <- sample(1:m, size = round(m/3), replace = FALSE, prob = rep(1/m, m)) 
iris.learn <- iris[-val,]
iris.valid <- iris[val,]
iris.kknn <- kknn(Species~., iris.learn, iris.valid, distance = 1, kernel = "triangular")
summary(iris.kknn)
fit <- fitted(iris.kknn)
table(iris.valid$Species, fit)
Jun 1, 2022 in Others by avinash
• 1,840 points
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