Hope you are doing great.
You can use different techniques for data cleaning and transformation. First of all it depends how does the data look like - whether it is structured or unstructured, yes talking of big data the data is almost unstructured. Hence The data should be converted into a structured format to load it into R and then the transformation can be done.
We have attached a document for various data cleaning techniques.
Now lets say your data is residing on Hadoop distributed File System (HDFS), which is used for storing big data, then you can use an important library RHadoop to work with Hadoop environment.
Please refer the attachment.
Please let us know if that helps.
Waiting for your response.
Note : Screen-shot, R- Hadoop file & De Jonge file