If you try to log into SQL Server using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) with a SQL Server account on a Windows 2012 R2 EC2 instance or in Amazon RDS, you can get an error. When SSMS is launched as a domain user, the error "Login failed for user" can occur, even if correct credentials are provided. This is a known problem, and AWS is working to fix it.
You can work around the problem by logging into SQL Server using Windows Authentication rather than SQL Authentication. Alternatively, instead of launching SSMS as a Simple AD domain user, run it as a local user.