Practically speaking, it's difficult/impossible to pause and resume the job, because the status of the hive will be either Successful or Failed.
There is definitely not a 'debug shortcut' like in some languages that would allow you to pause processing in the middle of a step.
But we can do the following steps to get close to the solution:
1. Split the job: Rather than writing one hive script, write 2 scripts in a way that first script would operate on the parts of the data and allows pausing the job and the 2nd script would operate on resuming the hive job.
This is a limited approach.
2. Freeze the environment : In this case, you can freeze the entire cluster and in case if you have a single node cluster, you can use Virtual Machine and freeze it.