Amazon EKS works by provisioning and managing the Kubernetes control plane and worker nodes for you. At a high level, Kubernetes consists of two major components - a cluster of 'worker nodes' that run your containers and the control plane that manages when and where containers are started on your cluster and monitors their status.
Without Amazon EKS, you have to run both the Kubernetes control plane and the cluster of worker nodes yourself. With Amazon EKS, you provision your worker nodes using a single command in the EKS console, CLI, or API, and AWS handles provisioning, scaling, and managing the Kubernetes control plane in a highly available and secure configuration. This removes a significant operational burden for running Kubernetes and allows you to focus on building applications instead of managing AWS infrastructure.