It is definitely possible to deploy ADOP on a local machine, but it is a tad bit harder than doing it on a server. Here's a quickstart guide you can use to get started.
Do check the prerequisites before getting started. From ADOP documentation:
NB. the instructions will also work in anywhere supported by Docker Machine, just follow the relevant Docker Machine instructions for your target platform and then start at step 3 below and (you can set the VPC_ID to NA).