Getting data from excel to Tableau Server:
Setup the UNC path so it is accessible from your server. If you do this, you can then set up an extract refresh to read in the UNC path at the frequency desired.
Create an extract with the Tableau SDK. Use the Tableau SDK to read in the CSV file and generate a file.
In our experience, #2 is not very fast. The Tableau SDK seems very slow when generating the extract, and then the extract has to be pushed to the server. I would recommend transferring the file to a location accessible to the server. Even a daily file copy to a shared drive on the server could be used if you're struggling with UNC paths. (Tableau does support UNC paths; you just have to be sure to use them rather than a mapped drive in your setup.)
It can be transferred as a file and then pushed (which may be fastest) or it can be pushed remotely.
As far as scheduling two steps (python and data extract refresh), I use a poor man's solution myself, where I update a csv file at one point (task scheduler or cron are some of the tools which could be used) and then setup the extract schedule at a slightly later point in time. While it does not have the linkage of running the python script and then causing the extract refresh (surely there is a tabcmd for this), it works just fine for my purposes to put 30 minutes in between as my processes are reliable and the app is not mission critical.
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