To get a date from your strings, you'll need helper columns.
You can utilize this formula, and perhaps it makes sense to develop a LAMBDA function from it (search for tutorials that address this issue). A3 represents the cell containing your data (e.g. Friday 11:30)
day,TEXTBEFORE(d," "),time,TEXTAFTER(d," "),
weekdayIndex, MATCH(day,weekdays,0), (TODAY() + (weekdayIndex-WEEKDAY(TODAY(),2) +1) ) + time)
Then you can use the helper columns for your conditional formatting. I hope this helps you.