You could use command
kubectl logs --namespace=kube-system kubernetes-dashboard-1975554030-80rxv
to check error details about what happened.
You might get this error or warning saying
kubelet does not have ClusterDNS IP configured and cannot create Pod using "ClusterFirst" policy. Falling back to DNSDefault policy.
Maybe you did not enable kubedns component yet, which may cause this problem.
If you are still using
to create your kubernetes dashboard, you could run command
kubectl edit pod kubernetes-dashboard-1975554030-80rxv -n kube-system
to manually change DNS policy to default. The key should be spec.template.spec.dnsPolicy to Default then recreate this Pod to see if it will work.