To do the same as mail() PHP function does, in most cases you should configure Laravel in the following way:
Use sendmail, at .env:
Host, user, password, port and encryption are not needed.
At this point, you may check if it already works, but sometimes the next step is also needed.
Set a new .env option in config/mail.php:
'sendmail' => env('MAIL_SENDMAIL', '/usr/sbin/sendmail -bs')
Set the sendmail path in .env. You can check sendmail_path at phpinfo(), but it's usually this one:
MAIL_SENDMAIL='/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i'