simple_salesforce does not provide most forms of OAuth authentication, like force:auth:web:login. The three ways to log in with simple_salesforce are:
- Provide your own access token, obtained through performing OAuth authentication elsewhere.
- Perform a SOAP login by providing a username, password, and security token (or other required parameters depending on your org's specific configuration).
- Use the JWT OAuth flow with a username and certificate.
Of the three, JWT is preferable when doing server-to-server integration, and SOAP login for interactive use at a console.