All transactions and records in blockchain are hashed to form merkle tree. All these hashes gives no information about the content, these are just random alpha numeric digest of the actual content.
So, there is no way to find about the content however the authenticity of the data can be checked from the corresponding digest. also, the hash pointing to the previous block may help you find the previous block, but its of no use cus you cannot find any information from that also.
So, there is no way to find the value you want to search for. If you want to check for the authenticity of any data you can traverse the tree to match the hash of that record. The graph is linear, and that the nodes previously added to the graph don't change too often. The immutability of the previously added nodes should certainly be used for efficiency when you update your data structures: if you already have seen those nodes, there is no need to re-scan them every time.