They are QR Codes, which can link to a variety of things, including websites and contact information. Note that they are not barcodes; instead, barcodes are the lines (such as vcard or email etc).
Utilizing software or online resources, you can produce QR Codes. In essence, you set up your QR code, and when someone uses a programme that can read a QR code, it does the associated action.
Therefore, I could construct a QR code for my iPhone app's URL from the App Store if I chose to supply one. The iTunes application would then open to my specific app when a user scans that on an iPhone.