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The prime objective of any software project is to get a high-quality output while reducing the cost and the time required for completing the project. To achieve that, companies test their software before they release it to the market. Documentation plays a critical role in achieving effective software testing. In this article let’s explore more about a documentation type called test case in software testing.
Listed below are the topics covered in this article:
You can go through this lecture on test case in software testing where our Software Testing Training expert is discussing each & every nitty gritties of the technology.
This video will give you an in-depth knowledge on how to write a Test Case in Software Testing.
Is Documentation Needed in Software Testing?
Yes! It is. Documentation plays a critical role in Test Automation. Here’s an example to convince you, people.
A company, let’s call it ‘ABC’, delivered a project (with an unknown issue) to one of its clients. And they found the issue at the client-side, which created a very bad situation for the company. Like always all blame was on Quality Analysts(QAs).
The issue was something regarding the compatibility of one website. The issue was presented to higher authorities, they showed the client a written proof of not receiving any such requirement asking to check compatibility of the website. So, the issue was resolved peacefully. In a way, the documented requirements saved the company from getting sued. That’s how documentation came in very handy.
There are different levels of documentation, like:
Moving further with this article on ‘Test Case in Software Testing’ let’s learn more about test cases in particular.
A test case is a document which has a set of conditions or actions that are performed on the software application in order to verify the expected functionality of the feature.
After test scripts, test cases are the second most detailed way of documenting testing work. They describe a specific idea that is to be tested, without detailing the exact steps to be taken or data to be used. For example, in a test case, you document something like ‘Test if coupons can be applied on actual price‘. This doesn’t mention how to apply the coupons or whether there are multiple ways to apply. It also doesn’t mention if the tester uses a link to apply a discount, or enter a code, or have a customer service apply it. They give flexibility to the tester to decide how they want to execute the test.
Apart from this, what is the use of test cases?
The key purpose of a test case is to ensure if different features within an application are working as expected. It helps tester, validate if the software is free of defects and if it is working as per the expectations of the end users. Other benefits of test cases include:
So, these are a few reasons why test cases are extremely useful in software testing. Test cases are powerful artifacts that work as a good source of truth for how a system and a particular feature of software works. However, before we deep dive into the lessons for writing top-notch test cases, let us have a basic idea on the terminologies associated with them.
The primary ingredients of a test case are an ID, description, bunch of inputs, few actionable steps, as well as expected and actual results. Let’s learn what each of them is:
This is the typical format that testers follow when they write a test case. Along with these parameters, testers can include additional parameters like test case priority, type of test case, bug id, etc.
Now that we are familiar with the format, let’s go one step ahead in the ‘Test Case in Software Testing’ article and learn about different techniques that you can use to write test cases.
An efficient test case design technique is necessary to improve the quality of the software testing process. It helps to improve the overall quality and effectiveness of the released software. The test case design techniques are broadly classified into three major categories:
Specification-Based(Black Box Techniques): This type of techniques can be used to design test cases in a systematic format. These use external features of the software such as technical specifications, design, client’s requirements, and more, to derive test cases. With this type of test case design techniques, testers can develop test cases that save testing time and allow full test coverage.
Structure-Based(White Box Techniques): These techniques design test cases based on the internal structure of the software program and code. Developers go into minute details of the developed code and test them one by one.
Experienced-Based Techniques: These techniques are highly dependent on tester’s experience to understand the most important areas of the software. They are based on the skills, knowledge, and expertise of the people involved.
This article ‘Test Case in Software Testing’ further lists the different techniques which come under the design categories specified above.
Successful application of any of these test case design techniques will render test cases that ensure the success of software testing. The remainder of this ‘Test Case in Software Testing’ article let’s check out how to write a good test case.
Here are the simple steps to get you started.
Preparing to write a test case
Writing a test case
Here’s a sample test case for checking login functionality, though I have added just two possibilities.
Knowing how to write good test cases is extremely important. It doesn’t take too much of your effort and time to write effective test scripts as long as you follow certain guidelines.
Test cases are very important for any project as they are the first step in any testing cycle. If anything goes wrong at this step, it might have undesirable impacts as you move forward in the software testing life-cycle. Few guidelines that you need to follow while writing test cases are:
Well, I can keep going on but there are way too many guidelines than I can actually list here. The ones listed above should be good enough for you to get started in writing test cases. Hope the things that you have learned here today will help you as you head out on your software testing journey.
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