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Sets In Java: Know how to work with Java Set Interface

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The Java Collection Framework contains numerous interfaces, one of which is the Set Interface. This article will give you a detailed introduction to Sets In Java. Following are the pointers to be covered in this article:

Sets In Java

Set be defined as a collection of unordered elements; wherein duplicate values cannot be stored. It extends Collection and thus all methods in the Collection interface are available in the Set interface. It is implemented by HashSet, LinkedHashSet, or the TreeSort.

Sets - Java Collections - Edureka

Each of these implementations act differently while iterating the set, mostly with respect to the ordering of the elements, and the time taken for insertion and for accessing the elements.

    • Hash Set does not provide any guarantee about the order of the elements while iterating the set.
    • LinkedHashSet on the other hand, provides a guarantee about the order of the elements while iterating them.
    • TreeSet provides guarantee, but the set is sorted according to the natural order, or by a specific comparator implementation.

    How to create a Set?

    The following code defines the method of creating a new set:

    Set<Integer> num = new HashSet<>();

    We have used generics to declare the set of an integer type.

    Set Methods in Java:

    We can perform multiple operations on a set such as follows:

    Add Method

    The add method inserts an element to the Java collection. In the code below, we insert a set of names.

    Set<String> strName = new HashSet<>();  
    strName.add("John");  
    strName.add("Doe");  
    System.out.println(strName);  
    

    Output:

    [John,  Doe]

    Remove Method

    This method removes the specified element from the set.

    import java.util.*; 
    public class Main{
        public static void main(String args[]) 
        { 
            // Creating an Empty Set 
            Set<String> set = new HashSet<String>(); 
      
            //Adding elements to the set
            set.add("John"); 
            set.add("Doe"); 
            
            // Display the set
            System.out.println("Set: " + set); 
      
            // Removing the element “Doe” using remove() method 
            set.remove("Doe"); 
            
            // Displaying the modified set
            System.out.println("Set : "
                               + set); 
        } 
    }  
    

    Output:

    Set : [John,  Doe]

    Set : [John]

    Is Empty Method

    This method checks determines whether the set is empty is not. It returns true if the set is empty, and false if otherwise.

    import java.io.*; 
    import java.util.*; 
    
    public class Main { 
    	public static void main(String args[]) 
    	{ 
    		Set<String> javaSet = new HashSet<String>(); 
    
    		// Adding elements to the Set 
    		javaSet.add("John"); 
    		javaSet.add("Doe"); 
    
    		// Display the set 
    		System.out.println("Set: " + javaSet); 
    
    		// Checking whether the set is empty
    		System.out.println("Empty Set : " + javaSet.isEmpty()); 
    
    		// Clearing the set using the clear() method 
    		javaSet.clear(); 
    
    		// Checking whether the set is empty 
    		System.out.println("Empty Set : " + javaSet.isEmpty()); 
    	} 
    }
    

    Output:

    Set : [John,  Doe]

    Empty Set : false

    Empty Set : true

    Size Method

    The size() method returns the size of the set, i.e. the number of elements present in the set.

    import java.util.*; 
    public class Main { 
    	public static void main(String args[]) 
    	{ 
    		// Creating a set 
    		Set<String> set = new HashSet<String>(); 
    		set.add("John"); 
    		set.add("Doe");
     
    		System.out.println("Set: " + set); 
    
    		// Displaying the size of the sent
    		System.out.println("Size of the set : " + set.size()); 
    	} 
    }
    

    Output:


    Set : [John,  Doe]

    Size of the set : 2

    Iterating Over A Set

    We can iterate over all the elements present in the set by the following method:

    import java.util.*; 
    import java.util.HashSet; 
    
    public class Main { 
    	public static void main(String args[]) 
    	{ 
    		// Creating a HashSet 
    		HashSet<String> javaSet = new HashSet<String>(); 
    
    		javaSet.add("John"); 
    		javaSet.add("Doe"); 
    		 
    		// Displaying the set
    		System.out.println("HashSet: " + javaSet); 
    
    		// Creating an iterator 
    		Iterator itr = javaSet.iterator(); 
    
    		// Displaying the values after iteration 
    		System.out.println("Iterator values: "); 
    		while (itr.hasNext()) { 
    			System.out.println(itr.next()); 
    		} 
    	} 
    }
    

     

     

    Output:

    HashSet : [John,  Doe]

    Iterator Values:

    John

    Doe

    Searching in  A Set

    We use the contains() method to determine whether the set contains a specified element. Returns true if the element is found and false otherwise.

    import java.io.*; 
    import java.util.HashSet; 
    
    public class Main { 
    	public static void main(String args[]) 
    	{ 
    		// Creating a HashSet 
    		HashSet<String> javaSet = new HashSet<String>(); 
    		javaSet.add("John"); 
    		javaSet.add("Doe");
    
    		// Displaying the HashSet 
    		System.out.println("HashSet: " + javaSet); 
    
    		// Checking for “John” in the set 
    		System.out.println("John in set: " + javaSet.contains("John")); 
    
    		// Checking for "Hazel" in set 
    		System.out.println("Hazel in set: " + javaSet.contains("Hazel")); 
    	} 
    }
    

    Output:

    HashSet : [John,  Doe]

    John in set: true

    Hazel in set: false

    Basic Operation On Sets in Java

    • Union: To add one set to another, we use the Union operation
    • Intersection: To retain the common values from both the sets, we use the intersection operation.
    • Difference: To remove the values of one set, from the other set, the difference operation is used.

    Example

    import java.util.*; 
    public class Main
    { 
    	public static void main(String args[]) 
    	{ 
    		Set<Integer> d = new HashSet<Integer>(); 
    		d.addAll(Arrays.asList(new Integer[] {3, 2, 1, 9, 6, 4, 0})); 
    		Set<Integer> e = new HashSet<Integer>(); 
    		e.addAll(Arrays.asList(new Integer[] {3, 1, 9, 5, 2, 0, 7,})); 
    
    		// Union Operation
    		Set<Integer> union = new HashSet<Integer>(d); 
    		union.addAll(e); 
    		System.out.println("Union :" + union); 
    
    		// Intersection Operation
    		Set<Integer> intersection = new HashSet<Integer>(d); 
    		intersection.retainAll(e); 
    		System.out.println("Intersection :" + intersection);  
    
    		// Difference Operation 
    		Set<Integer> difference = new HashSet<Integer>(d); 
    		difference.removeAll(e); 
    		System.out.println("Difference :" + difference);  
    	} 
    }
    

    Output:

    Union : [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9]

    Intersection : [0, 1, 2, 3, 9]

    Difference : [4, 6]

    The methods and the operations mentioned in the method make the set interface elemental and efficient in nature.

    Thus we have come to an end of this article on ‘Sets in Java’. If you wish to learn more, check out the Java Training by Edureka, a trusted online learning company. Edureka’s Java J2EE and SOA training and certification course is designed to train you for both core and advanced Java concepts along with various Java frameworks like Hibernate & Spring.

    Got a question for us? Please mention it in the comments section of  “sets in java” article and we will get back to you as soon as possible.

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