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Operators are the constructs which can manipulate the values of the operands. Consider the expression 2 + 3 = 5, here 2 and 3 are **operands** and + is called **operator**. In this article on **Java **operators, the goal is to get you the expertise required to get started and work with operators in Java.

Java supports the following types of operators:

- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical Operators
- Relational Operators
- Unary Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Ternary Operators
- Shift Operators

Let’s focus on each of these operators one by one.

Arithmetic Operators are used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, etc. Assume that A = 10 and B = 20 for the below table.

Operator | Description | Example |

+ Addition | Adds values on either side of the operator | A+B=30 |

– Subtraction | Subtracts the right-hand operator with left-hand operator | A-B=-10 |

* Multiplication | Multiplies values on either side of the operator | A*B=200 |

/ Division | Divides left hand operand with right hand operator | A/B=0 |

% Modulus | Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder | A%B=0 |

++ Increment | Increments the value by 1 | ++A=11 |

— Decrement | Decrements the value by 1 | –B=19 |

Consider the below example:

package Edureka; public class ArithmeticOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int A = 10; int B = 20; System.out.println(A + B); System.out.println(A - B); System.out.println(A * B); System.out.println(A / B); System.out.println(A % B); System.out.println(++A); System.out.println(--B); } }

30

-10

200

0

10

11

19

An *Assignment Operator* is an *operator* used to *assign* a new value to a variable. Assume A = 10 and B = 20 for the below table.

Operator | Description | Example |

= | Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand | c = a + b |

+= | It adds right operand to the left operand and assigns the result to left operand | c += a |

-= | It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to left operand | c -= a |

*= | It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to left operand | c *= a |

/= | It divides left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to left operand | c /= a |

%= | It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to left operand | c %= a |

&= | Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand | c **= a |

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; int b=20; int c; System.out.println(c = a); // Output =10 System.out.println(b += a);// Output=30 System.out.println(b -= a);// Output=20 System.out.println(b *= a);// Output=200 System.out.println(b /= a);// Output=2 System.out.println(b %= a);// Output=0 System.out.println(b &= a);// Output=0 } }

Moving ahead in Java operators tutorial, let’s see what are comparison operators.

These operators compare the values on either side of them and decide the relation among them. Assume A = 10 and B = 20.

Operator | Description | Example |

== | If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true. | (A == B) is not true |

!= | If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true. | (A != B) is true |

> | If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. | (a > b) is not true |

< | If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. | (a < b) is true |

>= | If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. | (a >= b) is not true |

<= | If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true. | (a <= b) is true |

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; int b=20; System.out.println(a == b); // returns false because 10 is not equal to 20 System.out.println(a != b); // returns true because 10 is not equal to 20 System.out.println(a > b); // returns false System.out.println(a < b); // returns true System.out.println(a >= b); // returns false System.out.println(a <= b); // returns true } }

Next up, let’s focus on logical operators in Java.

The following are the Logical operators present in Java:

Operator | Description | Example |

&& (and) | True if both the operands is true | a<10 && a<20 |

|| (or) | True if either of the operands is true | a<10 || a<20 |

! (not) | True if an operand is false (complements the operand) | !(x<10 && a<20) |

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; System.out.println(a<10 & a<20); //returns false System.out.println(a<10 || a<20); //returns true System.out.println(!(a<10 & a<20)); //returns true } }

Now let’s see relational operators in Java.

It defines some kind of relation between two entities. For example: <, >, <=, >=, !=, ==.

Operator | Description | Example |

== | True if both the operands are true | a<10 && a<20 |

!= | True if the left-hand side is not equal to the right-hand side | a<10 || a<20 |

< | returns true of the left-hand side is less than right-hand side. | !(x<10 && a<20) |

<= | returns true if the left-hand side is less than or equal to the right-hand side. | |

> | returns true if the left-hand side is greater than right-hand side. | |

>= | returns true if the left-hand side is greater than or equal to the right-hand side. |

Consider the below Java program to understand the same:

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; int b=20; System.out.println(a == b); //returns false System.out.println(a < b); //returns true System.out.println(a <= b); //returns true System.out.println(a > b); //returns false System.out.println(a >= b); //returns false System.out.println(a != b); //returns true } }

Unary operators are the one that needs a single operand and are used to increment a value, decrement or negate a value.

Operator | Description | Example |

++ | increments the value by 1. There is post-increment and pre-increment operators | a++ and ++a |

— | decrements the value by 1. There is post decrement and pre decrement operators | a– or –a |

! | invert a boolean value | !a |

Consider the following example:

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; boolean b=true; System.out.println(a++); //returns 11 System.out.println(++a); System.out.println(a--); System.out.println(--a); System.out.println(!b); // returns false } }

Moving ahead, let’s understand bitwise operator in Java

Bitwise operations directly manipulate **bits**. In all computers, numbers are represented with bits, a series of zeros and ones. In fact, pretty much everything in a computer is represented by bits. Assume that A = 10 and B = 20 for the below table.

Operator | Description | Example |

& (AND) | returns bit by bit AND of input | a&b |

| (OR) | returns OR of input values | a|b |

^ (XOR) | returns XOR of input values | a^b |

~ (Complement) | returns the one’s complement. (all bits reversed) | ~a |

Consider the example shown below:

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 58; //111010 int b=13; //1101 System.out.println(a&b); //returns 8 = 1000 System.out.println(a|b); //63=111111 System.out.println(a^b); //55=11011 System.out.println(~a); //-59 } }

Next up, let’s focus on the ternary operator in Java

The ternary operator is a conditional operator that decreases the length of code while performing comparisons and conditionals. This method is an alternative for using if-else and nested if-else statements. The order of execution for this operator is from left to right.

**Syntax:**

(Condition) ? (Statement1) : (Statement2);

**Condition:**It is the expression to be evaluated which returns a boolean value.**Statement 1:**It is the statement to be executed if the condition results in a true state.**Statement 2:**It is the statement to be executed if the condition results in a false state.

Consider the below example:

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 20, b = 10, c = 30, res; res = ((a > b) ? (a > c)? a: c: (b > c)? b: c); System.out.println("Max of three numbers = "+ res); } }

**Output**– Max of three numbers = 30

Moving ahead to the last java operator, let’s understand Shift operators in Java.

Shift operators are used to shift the bits of a number left or right, thereby multiplying or dividing the number. There are three different types of shift operators, namely left shift operator()<<, signed right operator(>>) and unsigned right shift operator(>>>).

**Syntax:**

numbershift_opnumber_of_places_to_shift;

Consider the following example:

package Edureka; public class JavaOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a=58; System.out.println(a<<2); //232=11101000 System.out.println(a>>2); //returns 14=1110 System.out.println(a>>>2); //returns 14 } }

With this, we come to an end of this article on the different Java operators. I hope this article was informative to you.

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