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Testing is crucial to the success of any software product. The prime objective of software testing is to get a high-quality output while reducing the cost and the time required for completing the project. But testing to find defects or bugs manually is time-consuming, expensive, often repetitive, and subject to human error. This is where automation comes into the picture. This Test Automation Interview Questions article is the perfect guide for you to learn about Automation Testing.
Test Automation or Automation Testing uses the assistance of tools, scripts, and software to perform test cases by repeating pre-defined actions. Automating software testing will definitely give companies a competitive edge in the market.
With the adoption of automation becoming more and more widespread, software testers with manual testing skills alone won’t be able to make it in today’s job market. If you are preparing for Automation Testing job interview, you need to be aware of most frequently asked questions in the test automation field. With that in mind, in this article on Test Automation Interview Questions, I will be discussing the top questions related to automation testing asked in the interviews. For your better understanding, I have divided test automation interview questions into the following sections:
Let’s begin with the first section of Test Automation Interview questions.
This section of Test Automation Interview Questions will cover all those basic questions that you need to know about Automation Testing.
Q1. What is Automation Testing?
Automation focuses on replacing manual human activity with systems or devices that enhance efficiency. Automation Testing is the technique of using various types of software tools or scripts to perform testing tasks such as entering data, executing the test steps and comparing the results etc.
Q2. What are the different types of Automation Testing?
Different types of test automation are unit tests, GUI tests, and functional tests.
Functional tests are also done at the testing level to simulate the functional scenarios to test the application with provided input and for expected output.
Q3. What is an automated test script?
An automated test script is basically a short program which is written in a programming language to perform a set of instructions on an application. This is done to verify if the application is as per the requirements or not. When you run the script, it gives the test results as pass or fail based on if the application is working as per the expectations or not.
Q4. What are good coding practices that should be followed while writing test cases for automation?
Certain good practices that you should follow when writing test cases are:
Q5. What is a Test Automation Framework?
A test automation framework is a set of universal guidelines and rules used to produce beneficial results of the test automation activity. The automation framework brings together function libraries, test data sources, object details, and other reusable modules and methods. Automation framework makes testing consistent. Some of the guidelines are as follows:
Q6. Why use automation frameworks? What are the benefits that they offer?
Using automation framework avails a lot of benefits like:
Q7. What are the different types of automation frameworks that are available?
Linear Scripting Framework: It is a basic level test automation framework which is in the form of ‘Record and Playback’ but in a linear fashion. This type of framework is mostly used to test small sized applications.
Data-Driven Framework: It is used to create test automation scripts by passing different sets of test data. The test data which includes input, expected output and a result field are stored in files like CSV files, excel files, text files, XML files etc.
Modular Testing Framework: Here the testers divide the application into multiple small modules and create test scripts individually. These individual test scripts are combined to make larger test scripts by using a master script to achieve the required scenarios.
Keyword Driven Framework: In this framework, testers use a table format to define keywords or action words for each method. Based on the keywords specified in the excel sheet test, scripting is done and tests are executed.
Hybrid Testing Framework: As the name suggests, this framework is the combination of two or more frameworks mentioned above. It attempts to leverage the strengths and benefits of other frameworks based on tester’s requirements.
Q8. What are pre-requisites to start automation testing?
Q9. What are the factors that determine the effectiveness of Automation Testing?
The factors that determine the success of automation are:
Q10. What are the main differences between Automation Testing & Manual Testing?
|Manual Testing||Automation Testing|
|In manual testing, the accuracy and reliability of test cases are low, as manual tests are more prone to human error.||Automated testing, on the other hand, is more reliable as tools and scripts are used to perform tests.|
|The time required for manual testing is high as human resources perform all the tasks.||The time required is comparatively low as software tool execute the tests|
|In manual testing investment cost is low, but Return of Investment(ROI) is low as well.||In automation testing investment cost and Return of Investment, both are high.|
|Manual testing is preferred when the test cases are run once or twice. Also suitable for Exploratory, Usability and Adhoc Testing.||You can use test automation for Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Load Testing or highly repeatable functional test cases|
|Allows for human observation to find out any glitches. Therefore manual testing helps in improving the customer experience.||As there is no human observation involved, there is no guarantee of positive customer experience.|
Q11. Is it possible to achieve 100% automation?
100% automation is not achievable. Because there are certain test cases that cannot easily be automated. In such cases, it will take far more effort to write automation tests than it would ever save. For example, checking the background color of a window or dialog box. Well, it would take double the time and effort to create a test case for such a simple task. Manual testing is best in such cases. So, complete automation is not possible.
Q12. What are some conditions where we cannot consider automation testing?
Q13. What are some modern applications of Automation Testing?
Well, there are plethora of examples that I can list. Here are a few interesting ones. Amazon is testing delivery drones that pick up warehouse orders which are sorted by robots. Google is testing self-driving cars. While Starbucks is testing cashier-free stores dedicated to mobile ordering and payment. Facebook is testing a brain-computer interface that may one day translate thoughts into digital text.
Q14. Can automation testing replace manual testing?
Automation testing isn’t a replacement for manual testing. No matter how good automated tests are, you cannot automate everything. Manual tests play an important role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automation. Automated and manual testing each have their own strengths and weaknesses. Manual testing helps us to understand the entire problem and explore other angles of tests with more flexibility. On the other hand, automated testing helps save time in the long run by accomplishing a large number of surface level tests in a short time.
Q15. Is documentation necessary in Automation Testing?
Documentation plays a very important role in Test Automation. All the methods and procedures that you employ should be documented so that they are repeatable. Test specifications, designs, configurations, code changes, automation plan, test cases listed for automation, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented.
Q16. Name some popular Automation Testing tools used worldwide?
Some of the most popular automation testing tools include Selenium, Watir, Ranorex, Appium, UFT, Tosca and SoapUI.
This section of Test Automation Interview Questions will cover the topics like why automate, how to automate and automation testing tool selection.
Q17. When should you prefer Manual Testing over Automation Testing?
There are certain cases where manual testing is preferred over automation testing, like:
Ad-hoc Testing: In ad-hoc testing, there is no specific approach. It is a totally unplanned method of testing where the understanding and insight of the tester is the only important factor.
Exploratory Test: This type of testing requires the tester’s knowledge, experience, analytical, logical skills, creativity, and intuition. So human involvement is important in exploratory testing.
Q18. When is Automation testing useful? Which test cases to Automate?
It is impossible to automate all test cases, so it is important to determine which ones to be automated first. There are some top candidates like:
Q19. How to implement automation, what would be the steps?
Success in test automation requires careful planning and design work. The steps include:
Q20. What are the different approaches to Test Automation?
Code-Driven Testing: Here the focus is mainly on test case execution to find out if the various sections of code are performing as per expectations or not. This testing approach is a popular method used in agile software development.
Graphical User Interface (GUI) Testing: Applications that have GUIs may be tested using this approach. Testers can record user actions and analyze them any number of times. Test cases can be written in a number of programming languages like C#, Java, Perl, Python etc.
Test Automation Framework: Framework is a set of guidelines used to produce beneficial results of the automated testing activity. It brings together function libraries, test data sources, object details, and other reusable modules.
Q21. What are the points that are covered while planning phase of automation?
Q22. How to decide which tool to use for Automation testing in the projects?
To decide which tools to choose, you can follow the steps listed below:
Q23. What are the primary features of a good automation tool?
Q24. On what basis you can map the success of automation?
Q25. What is the scripting standard while performing automation testing?
Uniformity in naming convention, commenting the functionality whenever and wherever necessary, adequate indentation, robust error handling and ability to recover easily are some good practices that you should follow while scripting.
Q26. What are the differences between open source tools, vendor tools & in-house tools in automation testing?
Q27. What are the advantages of using an Automation Framework?
The advantages of using test automation framework, are:
Q28. What are the important modules of Test Automation Framework?
Test Assertion Tool: This module will provide assert statements for testing the expected values in the application under test.
Data Setup: Each test case needs to take the user data either from the database or from a file or embedded in the test script.
Build Management Tool: Tool that you can use to build a framework so that you can create test scripts.
Continuous integration tool: Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery tools are required for integrating and deploying the changes done in the framework at each iteration.
Reporting tool: A reporting tool is required to generate a readable report after the test cases are executed. This way you can get a better view of the steps, results, and failures.
Logging tool: The logging tool in the framework helps in better debugging of the error and bugs.
Q29. What are some popular automation testing frameworks available?
Q30. What do you think are the use cases where implementing automation is not suggested?
100% test automation is impossible. Manual testing is still necessary. Tests that cannot be automated are:
This section of Test Automation Interview Questions will cover tricky questions related to automation testing.
Q31. What are the advantages & disadvantages of using Automation Testing?
Advantages of automation testing are:
Disadvantages of automation testing include:
Q32. Is Automation Testing a Black-box testing or a White box testing?
Automated testing can be both black or white box type of testing depending on the scenarios in which automation is performed. It is black box testing as tester usually tests the application without knowing the low-level design or code of the application. But sometimes, automated test scripts need access to the database details that are used in the application thus it can be a type of white-box testing as well.
Q33. What are the attributes of a good Test Automation Framework?
Q34. What are Test Automation Framework development challenges?
Some of the challenges that you come across while using frameworks are:
Q35. What is data-driven testing?
The aim of data-driven automation testing is to simplify the testing process involving complex and huge data sets. In Data Driven Testing the test data includes input, expected output, and a result field. These fields are listed in files like CSV files, excel files, text files, XML files etc. These files are then fed to automation tool for execution, which in turn compares the expected and actual data. Then the obtained results are documented in the result field.
Q36. What is TestNG? List out some of its prominent features?
TestNG is an open-source automated testing framework, where NG refers to NextGeneration.The creator of TestNG is Cedric Beust. It is inspired by other frameworks like JUnit and NUnit. It is designed to be better than JUnit, especially while testing integrated classes.TestNG gives the developer the ability to write more flexible and powerful tests with ease. Some of its prominent features include:
Q37. What are the advantages of TestNG over JUnit?
In TestNG, testing is based on Junit, but it designed to overcomes the limitations of JUnit. Some advantages of TestNG over Junit are:
Q38. In what conditions we cannot use Automation Testing for Agile method?
Test teams responsible for product development at the companies adopt Agile practices to achieve their goals. Test automation is a fundamental part of Agile, but there are certain times where automation testing in agile is useless, like:
Q39. What are some best practices that you should follow while Automation Testing?
To get maximum ROI of automation, keep track of the following points:
Q40. What are the risks associated with the test automation?
Some of the risks involved with automation testing are:
Well, that’s it! We have reached the end of the Test Automation Interview Questions Article.
I hope the questions listed in this “Test Automation Interview Questions” help you crack your interview. Happy learning!
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