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Top 50+ Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

Last updated on May 20,2024 702.3K Views

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Testing is crucial to the success of any software product in this competitive world. Manual tests play a pivotal role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automated tests. Hence, there is still a lot of demand for people with skills relevant to manual testing. This Manual Testing Interview Questions article is the perfect guide for you to master software testing.

Let’s begin by taking a look at the most frequently asked Manual Testing Interview Questions.

For better understanding, the Interview Questions are divided into the following sections:

Basic Manual Testing Interview Questions

Q1. What is Software Testing?

Software Testing is a process used to identify developed software’s correctness, completeness, and quality. It includes a series of activities conducted to find software errors so that it can be corrected before the product is released to the market.

Q2. How does quality control differ from quality assurance?

Quality Control vs Quality Assurance
Quality ControlQuality Assurance

Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as to make sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders.

Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques, and processes used to create quality deliverables are applied correctly.

3. Why is Software Testing Required?

Software testing is a mandatory process that guarantees that the software product is safe and good enough to be released to the market. Here are some compelling reasons to prove testing is needed:

  • It points out the defects and errors that were made during the development phases.
  • Reduces the coding cycles by identifying issues at the initial stage of the development.
  • Ensures that software application requires lower maintenance cost and results in more accurate, consistent and reliable results.
  • Testing ensures that the customer finds the organization reliable and their satisfaction in the application is maintained.
  • Makes sure that software is bug-free and the quality of the product meets the market standard.
  • Ensures that the application doesn’t result in any failures.

Q4. What are the two main categories of software testing?

Software testing is a huge domain but it can be broadly categorized into two areas such as :

  • Manual Testing – This is the oldest type of software testing where the testers manually execute test cases without using any test automation tools. It means the software application is tested manually by QA testers.
  • Automation Testing – This is the process of using the assistance of tools, scripts, and software to perform test cases by repeating pre-defined actions. Test Automation focuses on replacing manual human activity with systems or devices that enhance efficiency.

Q5. What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?

Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders.

Q6. What different types of manual testing are there?

Different types of manual testing are;

    • Black Box Testing
    • White Box Testing
    • Unit Testing
    • System Testing
    • Integration Testing
    • Acceptance Testing

    Q7. Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.

    • Alpha Testing – It is a type of software testing performed to identify bugs before releasing the product to real users or to the public. Alpha Testing is a type of user acceptance testing.
    • Beta Testing – It is performed by real users of the software application in a real environment. Beta Testing is also a type of user acceptance testing.

    Q8. What are the different levels of manual testing?

    Four levels of manual testing are:

    • Unit testing – It is a way of testing the smallest piece of code referred to as a unit that can be logically isolated in a system. It is mainly focused on the functional correctness of the standalone module.
    • Integration Testing – It is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested to verify if they are working as they intend to when integrated. The main aim here is to test the interface between the modules.
    • System Testing – In system testing all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. There are dozens of types of system testing, including usability testing, regression testing, and functional testing.

    User Acceptance Testing – The final level, acceptance testing, or UAT (user acceptance testing), determines whether or not the software is ready to be released.

    Q9. What is a testbed in manual testing?

    The testbed is an environment configured for testing. It is an environment used for testing an application, including the hardware as well as any software needed to run the program to be tested. It consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.

    Q10. Explain the procedure for manual testing?

    The manual testing process comprises the following steps:

    • Planning and Control
    • Analysis and Design
    • Implementation and Execution
    • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
    • Test Closure activities

    Q11. What is a test scenario?

    A test scenario in software testing is a detailed description of a specific functionality to be tested. It outlines conditions, inputs, and expected outcomes for testers to follow. By replicating real-world interactions, it helps uncover defects and ensures the software meets requirements. Test scenarios aid in identifying issues early, allowing timely resolution before release, contributing to a reliable software product.

    Q12. What is GUI testing?

    GUI (Graphical User Interface) testing is a software testing technique focused on evaluating the visual and interactive aspects of a software application. It involves verifying that the user interface elements, such as buttons, menus, forms, and windows, function correctly and display accurately. GUI testing ensures that user interactions with the application are smooth, intuitive, and aligned with design specifications. Testers assess aspects like layout, font, color schemes, responsiveness, and alignment of graphical elements. GUI testing is essential to guarantee a positive user experience and identify any discrepancies between the intended design and the actual appearance and behavior of the application. By addressing issues early in the development cycle, GUI testing helps enhance usability, user satisfaction, and the overall quality of the software product.

    Q13. When should testing end?

    Software testing should end when the predetermined testing objectives have been achieved and the software meets the specified quality criteria. Testing concludes when all test cases have been executed, defects have been identified and resolved, and the software functions as intended. However, it’s essential to consider factors such as time constraints, budget, and the acceptable level of risk. While complete elimination of defects is improbable, testing should halt when the benefits of additional testing no longer justify the resources expended. A balance between thorough testing and timely release is crucial, ensuring that the software is stable, functional, and aligns with user expectations.

    Q14. What are the different types of Software testing?

    Software testing encompasses various types aimed at ensuring the quality, functionality, and reliability of software applications. Unit testing verifies individual components in isolation. Integration testing assesses interactions between integrated components. Functional testing validates if the software functions as specified. Regression testing ensures new changes don’t adversely affect existing functionalities. Performance testing evaluates the system’s responsiveness and scalability under different conditions. Security testing examines vulnerabilities and safeguards against threats. User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves end-users validating software suitability. Compatibility testing checks software behavior across different platforms. Usability testing assesses user-friendliness and overall user experience. Exploratory testing involves dynamic, ad hoc testing. Automation testing uses scripts to execute tests. Load testing gauges the application’s response under heavy load. Each type targets specific aspects, collectively ensuring a comprehensive evaluation of the software’s capabilities and performance before deployment.

    Q15. What is Acceptance testing?

    Acceptance testing is a critical phase in software testing where a software application is evaluated to determine whether it meets the specified requirements and is ready for deployment. It involves validating that the software aligns with user expectations, functions as intended, and satisfies the defined criteria for acceptance.

    There are two main categories of acceptance testing:

    1. User Acceptance Testing (UAT): In UAT, end-users or stakeholders perform tests to ensure that the software meets their needs and requirements. This testing phase confirms that the software is user-friendly, fits into the users’ workflows, and provides the desired functionalities.

    2. Business Acceptance Testing (BAT): BAT focuses on validating that the software fulfills the business objectives and goals. It ensures that the software aligns with the strategic goals of the organization and that it supports the intended business processes.

    Acceptance testing acts as the final gate before software release. Its successful completion indicates that the software is ready for deployment to a wider audience. Any issues identified during acceptance testing are addressed, and once the software passes this testing phase, it signifies that it has met the necessary quality standards and is deemed acceptable for production use.

    Q16. Differentiate between bug leakage and bug release

    Bug Leakage:
    Bug leakage occurs when a defect that was previously reported and fixed reappears in the software after it was thought to be resolved. This usually happens when the testing team fails to identify the recurrence of the bug during retesting or regression testing. It indicates that the bug was not completely fixed or that the testing process might have missed certain scenarios that trigger the bug. Bug leakage can lead to a decrease in user confidence and dissatisfaction if users encounter the same issue post-release.

    Bug Release:
    Bug release refers to the presence of defects or bugs in the software that are identified after the software has been released to the users or clients. These bugs were not detected during the testing process and were inadvertently included in the released version. Bug releases can happen due to various reasons, such as incomplete testing, inadequate test coverage, or unforeseen scenarios. They can result in user inconvenience, reputational damage, and the need for urgent patches or updates to fix the released bugs.

    Q17. What is a test script?

    A test script is a set of instructions or lines of code written to automate the execution of test cases during software testing. It outlines the sequence of actions that need to be performed by the testing tool or framework to simulate user interactions with the software. Test scripts specify inputs, expected outcomes, and validation criteria for each step, allowing for repeatable and consistent testing. By automating test cases through scripts, testing efficiency is improved, and manual effort is reduced. Test scripts are particularly valuable for regression testing, where repetitive tests need to be executed to ensure that new changes haven’t introduced defects.

    API Testing - Manual Testing Interview Questions - Edureka

    Commonly, applications have three separate layers:

    • Presentation Layer or user interface
    • Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing
    • Database Layer for modeling and manipulating data

    API testing is performed at the most critical layer of software architecture, the Business Layer. 

    Related Article: Selenium Interview Questions

    Q18. What’s the difference between verification and validation in testing?

    Verification Validation

    It is a static analysis technique. Here, testing is done without executing the code. Examples include – Reviews, Inspection, and walkthrough.

    It is a dynamic analysis technique where testing is done by executing the code. Examples include functional and non-functional testing techniques.

    Q19. What’s the difference between a bug and a defect?

    A bug is a just fault in the software that’s detected during testing time. A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live.

    Q20.What are the advantages of manual testing?

    Merits of manual testing are:

    • It is a cheaper way of testing when compared to automated testing
    • Analysis of product from the point of view of the end-user is possible only with manual testing
    • GUI testing can be done more accurately with the help of manual testing as visual accessibility and preferences are difficult to automate
    • East to learn for new people who have just entered into testing
    • It is highly suitable for short-term projects when test-scripts are not going to be repeated and reused for thousands of times
    • Best suited when the project is at the early stages of its development
    • Highly reliable, since automated tests can contain errors and missed bugs

    Q21.What are the drawbacks of manual testing?

    De-merits of manual testing are:

    • Highly susceptible to human error and are risky
    • Test types like load testing and performance testing are not possible manually
    • Regression tests are really time-consuming if they are done manually
    • Scope of manual testing is very limited when compared to automation testing
    • Not suitable in very large organizations and time-bounded projects
    • The cost adds up, so, it’s more expensive to test manually in the long run

    Q22. What’s the role of documentation in Manual Testing?

    Documentation - Manual Testing Interview Questions - EdurekaDocumentation plays a critical role in achieving effective software testing. Details like requirement specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented.

    Documenting the test cases will facilitate you to estimate the testing effort you will need along with test coverage and tracking and tracing requirement. Some commonly applied documentation artifacts associated with software testing are:

    1. Test Plan
    2. Test Scenario
    3. Test Case
    4. Traceability Matrix

    With this, we have completed basic questions based on manual testing. Let’s discuss the advanced-level manual testing interview questions.

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    Advanced Level Manual Testing Interview Questions

    Q23. What is the difference between manual testing and automation testing?

    Manual Testing

    Automation Testing

    In manual testing, the accuracy, and reliability of test cases are low, as manual tests are more prone to human error.

    Automated testing, on the other hand, is more reliable as tools and scripts are used to perform tests.

    The time required for manual testing is high as human resources perform all the tasks.

    The time required is comparatively low as software tool execute the tests

    In manual testing investment cost is low, but Return of Investment(ROI) is low as well.

    In automation testing investment cost and Return of Investment, both are high.

    Manual testing is preferred when the test cases are run once or twice. Also suitable for Exploratory, Usability and Adhoc Testing. 

     You can use test automation for Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Load Testing or highly repeatable functional test cases

    Allows for human observation to find out any glitches. Therefore manual testing helps in improving the customer experience.

    As there is no human observation involved, there is no guarantee of positive customer experience.

    Alternatively, you can check out the Automation Engineer Course by Edureka and get certified!

    Q24. When should you opt for manual testing over automation testing?

    There are a lot of cases when manual testing is best suited over automation testing, like:

    • Short-time projects: Automated tests are aimed at saving time and resources yet it takes time and resources to design and maintain them. For example, if you are building a small promotional website, it can be much more efficient to rely on manual testing.
    • Ad-hoc Testing: In ad-hoc testing, there is no specific approach. Ad-hoc testing is a totally unplanned method of testing where the understanding and insight of the tester is the only important factor. This can be achieved using manual testing.
    • Exploratory Test: This type of testing requires the tester’s knowledge, experience, analytical, logical skills, creativity, and intuition. So human involvement is important in exploratory testing.
    • Usability Testing: When performing usability testing, the tester needs to measure how user-friendly, efficient, or convenient the software or product is for the end-users. Human observation is the most important factor, so manual testing sounds seems more appropriate.

    Q25. What are the phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?

    The different phases involved in the software testing life cycle are:

    PhasesExplanation
    Requirement AnalysisQA team understands the requirement in terms of what we will testing & figure out the testable requirements.
    Test PlanningIn this phase, the test strategy is defined. Objective & the scope of the project is determined.
    Test Case DevelopmentHere, detailed test cases are defined and developed. The testing team also prepares the test data for testing.
    Test Environment SetupIt is a setup of software and hardware for the testing teams to execute test cases.
    Test Execution It is the process of executing the code and comparing the expected and actual results.
    Test Cycle ClosureIt involves calling out the testing team member meeting & evaluating cycle completion criteria based on test coverage, quality, cost, time, critical business objectives, and software.

    If you face any challenges with these Manual Testing interview questions, please leave a comment on your problems.

    Q26. What is the difference between a bug, a defect and an error?

    Bug – A bug is a fault in the software that’s detected during testing time. They occur because of some coding error and leads a program to malfunction. They may also lead to a functional issue in the product. These are fatal errors that could block a functionality, results in a crash, or cause performance bottlenecks

    Defect – A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live. The defect is an error found AFTER the application goes into production. In simple terms, it refers to several troubles with the software products, with its external behavior, or with its internal features.

    Error – An error is a mistake, misunderstanding, or misconception, on the part of a software developer. The category of developers includes software engineers, programmers, analysts, and testers. For example, a developer may misunderstand a design notation, or a programmer might type a variable name incorrectly – leads to an error. An error normally arises in software, it leads to a change the functionality of the program.

    You can even check out the details of Manual Testing with the Manual Testing course.

      Q27. What makes a good test engineer?

      A software test engineer is a professional who determines how to create a process that would best test a particular product in the software industry. 

      • A good test engineer should have a ‘test to break’ attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer
      • Strong desire for quality and attention to minute details
      • Tact and diplomacy to maintain a cooperative relationship with developers
      • Ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people 
      • Prior experience in the software development industry is always a plus
      • Ability to judge the situations and make important decisions to test high-risk areas of an application when time is limited

      Q28.What is regression testing? When to apply it?

      “Testing of a previously tested program to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made is called Regression Testing.”

      Regression Testing Process - Manual Testing Interview Questions - Edureka

      A regression test is a system-wide test whose main purpose is to ensure that a small change in one part of the system does not break existing functionality elsewhere in the system. It is recommended to perform regression testing on the occurrence of the following events:

      • When new functionalities are added
      • In case of change requirements
      • When there is a defect fix
      • When there are performance issues
      • In case of environment changes
      • When there is a patch fix

      Related Learning: Performance Testing Interview Questions

      Q29. What is the difference between system testing and integration testing?

      System Testing Integration Testing

      System Testing tests the software application as a whole to check if the system is compliant with the user requirements

      Integration testing tests the interface between modules of the software application

      Involves both functional and non-functional testings like sanity, usability, performance, stress an load

      Only functional testing is performed to check whether the two modules when combined give the right outcome

       It is high-level testing performed after integration testing

      It is low-level testing performed after unit testing

      Q30. Explain the defect life cycle.

      A defect life cycle is a process in which a defect goes through various phases during its whole lifetime. The cycle starts when a defect is found and ends when a defect is closed, after ensuring it’s not reproduced. Bug or defect life cycle includes the steps as shown in the below figure.

      Bug life cycle - Manual testing interview questions - Edureka

      If you wish to learn in-depth about Bug Life Cycle then you can refer this article on Software Testing Tutorial.

      Q31. What is the test harness?

      A test harness is the gathering of software and test information arranged to test a program unit by running it under changing conditions like stress, load, data-driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:

      – A Test Execution Engine
      – Test script repository

      Q32. What is test closure?

      Test Closure is a document which gives a summary of all the tests conducted during the software development life cycle and also gives a detailed analysis of the bugs removed and errors found. This memo contains the aggregate no. of experiments, total no. of experiments executed, total no. of imperfections discovered, add total no. of imperfections settled, total no. of bugs not settled, total no of bugs rejected and so forth.

      Q33. What is the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?

      Positive Testing 

      Negative Testing

      Positive testing determines that your application works as expected. If an error is encountered during positive testing, the test fails

      Negative testing ensures that your application can gracefully handle invalid input or unexpected user behavior

      In this testing, tester always check for an only valid set of values 

      Testers apply as much creativity as possible and validating the application against invalid data

      34. What is your approach towards a severely buggy program? How would you handle it?

      When dealing with a severely buggy program, a systematic approach is essential to identify, prioritize, and resolve the issues effectively. Here’s how I would handle it:

      Bug Triage: Start by categorizing and prioritizing the bugs based on their severity and impact on the program’s functionality. Critical bugs affecting core functionalities should be addressed first.

      Isolate and Reproduce: Reproduce the bugs in a controlled environment to understand their triggers and conditions. Isolating the bugs helps in diagnosing the root causes.

      Root Cause Analysis: Conduct a thorough investigation to identify the root causes of the bugs. This may involve reviewing the code, logs, and system behavior to pinpoint the areas requiring correction.

      Fix the Bugs: Develop patches or fixes to address the identified issues. Implement solutions that not only resolve the immediate problems but also consider the potential implications on other parts of the program.

      Unit Testing: Test the individual fixes rigorously through unit testing to ensure that they don’t introduce new problems or regressions.

      Q35. What is the pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?

      According to pesticide paradox, if the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those places where testers found more defects and might not look into other areas. Methods to prevent pesticide paradox:

      •  To write a whole new set of test cases to exercise different parts of the software.
      •  To prepare new test cases and add them to the existing test cases.

      Using these methods, it’s possible to find more defects in the area where defect numbers dropped. 

      Q36. What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

      Defect Cascading is the process of triggering other defects in the application. When a defect goes unnoticed while testing, it invokes other defects. As a result, multiple defects crop up in the later stages of development. If defect cascading continues to affect other features in the application, identifying the affected feature becomes challenging. You may make different test cases to solve this issue, even then it is difficult and time-consuming.

      Q37. What is the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?

      In general, quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. But again ‘quality’ is a subjective term. It will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. For example, each type of ‘customer’ will have their own slant on ‘quality’ – the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.

      Q38. What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?

      Black-Box Testing, also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of a software/application without knowing much about the internal structure/design of the item. The purpose of this testing is to check the system’s functionality as a whole to ensure that it works correctly and meets user demands. Various black-box testing techniques are:

      • Equivalence Partitioning
      • Boundary Value Analysis
      • Decision Table Based Technique
      • Cause-effect Graphing
      • Use Case Testing

      Q39. What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?

      White-Box Testing also known as structure-based testing, requires a profound knowledge of the code as it includes testing of some structural part of the application. The purpose of this testing is to enhance security, check the flow of inputs/outputs through application and to improve design and usability. Various white-box testing techniques are:

      • Statement Coverage
      • Decision Coverage
      • Condition Coverage
      • Multiple Condition Coverage

      Q40. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

      Experienced-based testing is all about discovery, investigation, and learning. The tester constantly studies and analyzes the product and accordingly applies his skills, traits, and experience to develop test strategies and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:

      • Exploratory Testing
      • Error Guessing

      Q41.What is a top-down and bottom-up approach in testing?

      Top-Down – Testing happens from top to bottom. That is, high-level modules are tested first, and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are incorporated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.

      Bottom-UpTesting happens from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and afterward high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are coordinated to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.

      Q42. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

      FeaturesSmoke TestingSanity Testing

      System Builds

      Tests are executed on initial builds of software productTests are done on builds that have passed smoke tests & rounds of regression tests 

      Motive of Testing

      To measure the stability of the newly created build to face off more rigorous testingTo evaluate rationality & originality of the functionalities of software builds

      Subset of?

      Is a subset of acceptance testingIs a subset of regression testing

      Documentation

      Involves documentation and scripting workDoesn’t emphasize any sort of documentation

      Test Coverage

      Shallow & wide approach to include all the major functionalities without going too deepNarrow & deep approach involving detailed testing of functionalities and features

      Performed By?

      Executed by developers or testersExecuted by testers

      Q43. What is the difference between static testing and dynamic testing?

      Static TestingDynamic Testing

      Static Testing is a white box testing technique, it includes the process of exploring the records to recognize the imperfections in the very early stages of SDLC.

      Dynamic testing includes the process of execution of code and is done at the later stage of the software development lifecycle. It validates and approves the output with the expected results.

      Static Testing is implemented at the verification stage.

      Dynamic testing starts during the validation stage.

      Static testing is performed before the code deployment.

      Dynamic testing is performed after the code deployment

      The program’s code error detection and execution is not a concern in this type of testing.

      Execution of code is necessary for dynamic testing.

      With this, we have completed theory questions. In the next part of this Manual Testing Interview Questions article, let’s discuss some real-world scenario-based questions.

      Real-World Based Manual Testing Interview Questions

        Q44. How will you determine when to stop testing?

        Deciding when to stop testing can be quite difficult. Many modern software applications are so complex and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Some common factors in deciding when to stop testing are: 

        • Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.)
        • Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
        • When the test budget is depleted
        • Coverage of code or functionality or requirements reaches a specified point
        • Bug rate falls below a certain level
        • When Beta or alpha testing period ends

          Q44. What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all? 

          Often testers encounter a bug that can’t be resolved at all. In such situations, the best bet is for testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can cause severe problems such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.

          Q45. How you test a product if the requirements are yet to freeze?

          It’s possible that a requirement stack is not available for a piece of product. It might take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected functionality, and it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isn’t necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed. Else, create a test plan based on the assumptions made about the product. But make sure you get all assumptions well documented in the test plan.

          Q46. What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed testing processes are impossible? What to do in such situations?

          This is a very common problem in the software industry, especially considering the new technologies that are being incorporated when developing the product. There is no easy solution in this situation, you could:
          • Hire good and skilled people 
          • Management should ‘ruthlessly prioritize’ quality issues and maintain focus on the customer 
          • Everyone in the organization should be clear on what ‘quality’ means to the end-user

          Q47. What is a cause-effect graph?

          A cause-effect graph, also known as a cause-and-effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visual tool used for problem-solving and root cause analysis. It was developed by Japanese quality control expert Kaoru Ishikawa and is often referred to as the “fishbone diagram” due to its resemblance to a fish skeleton.

          The diagram helps identify and explore the potential causes leading to a particular problem or effect. It’s particularly useful in understanding the complex relationships between various factors that contribute to an issue. The main components of a cause-effect graph include:

          1. Effect: The problem or issue you’re trying to address is placed at the head of the diagram.

          2. Major Causes: These are the main categories of factors that could contribute to the problem. They are typically categorized into branches stemming from the main horizontal line (the “spine” of the fishbone).

          3. Sub-causes: Each major cause is further broken down into sub-causes or specific factors that could be contributing to the problem. These are detailed within the branches of the diagram.

          Q48. What are the cases when you’ll consider to choose automated testing over manual testing?

          Automated testing can be considered over manual testing during the following situations:

          • When tests require periodic execution
          • Tests include repetitive steps
          • Tests need to be executed in a standard runtime environment
          • When you have less time to complete the testing phase
          • When there is a lot of code that needs to be repeatedly tested
          • Reports are required for every execution

          Q49. What is ‘configuration management’?

          Every high-functioning organization has a “master plan” that details how they are supposed to operate and accomplish tasks. Software development and testing are no different. Software configuration management (SCM) is a set of processes, policies, and tools that organize, control, coordinate, and track:

          • code
          • documentation
          • problems
          • change requests
          • designs and tools
          • compilers and libraries

          Q50. Is it true that we can do system testing at any stage?

          In system testing, all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. So, no. The system testing must start only if all units are in place and are working properly. System testing usually happens before the UAT (User Acceptance Testing).

          Q51. What are some best practices that you should follow when writing test cases?

          Few guidelines that you need to follow while writing test cases are:

          • Prioritize which test cases to write based on the project timelines and the risk factors of your application.
          • Remember the 80/20 rule. To achieve the best coverage, 20% of your tests should cover 80% of your application.
          • Don’t try to test cases in one attempt instead improvise them as you progress.
          • List down your test cases and classify them based on business scenarios and functionality.
          • Make sure test cases are modular and test case steps are as granular as possible.
          • Write test cases in such a way that others can understand them easily & modify if required.
          • Always keep end-users’ requirements in the back of your mind because ultimately the software designed is for the customer
          • Actively use a test management tool to manage stable release cycle.
          • Monitor your test cases regularly. Write unique test cases and remove irrelevant & duplicate test cases.

          Q52. Why is it that the boundary value analysis provides good test cases?

          The reason why boundary value analysis provides good test cases is that usually, a greater number of errors occur at the boundaries rather than in the center of the input domain for a test.

          In boundary value analysis technique test cases are designed to include values at the boundaries. If the input is within the boundary value, it is considered ‘Positive testing.’ If the input is outside of the boundary value, it is considered ‘Negative testing.’ It includes maximum, minimum, inside or outside edge, typical values or error values.

          Let’s suppose you are testing for an input box that accepts numbers from ’01 to 10′.

           Using the boundary value analysis we can define three classes of test cases:

          • Test cases with test data exactly as the input boundaries of input: 1 and 10 (in this case)
          • Values just below the extreme edges of input domains: 0 and 9
          • Test data with values just above the extreme edges of input domains: 2 and 11

          So the boundary values would be 0, 1, 2 and 9, 10, 11.

          Q53.Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly or 100% bug-free?

          It is impossible to build a software product that is 100% bug-free. You can just minimize the error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result.

          Here are the two principal reasons that make it impossible to test a program entirely.

          • Software specifications can be subjective and can lead to different interpretations.
          • A software program might require too many inputs, outputs, and path combinations to test.

          Q54. Can automation testing replace manual testing?

          Automation testing isn’t a replacement for manual testing. No matter how good automated tests are, you cannot automate everything. Manual tests play an important role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automation. Automated and manual testing each have their own strengths and weaknesses. Manual testing helps us understand the entire problem and more flexibly explore other angles of tests. On the other hand, automated testing helps save time in the long run by accomplishing a large number of surface-level tests in a short time.

          That’s it, folks! We have reached the end of this ‘Manual Testing Interview Questions.’ You could also look at Automation Testing Interview Questions while you’re at it.

          If you found this article relevant, check out the Selenium Certification by Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 250,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe.

          Do you have a question for us? Please mention it in the comments section and we will respond to you.

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          Top 50+ Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers & Experienced

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