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Testing is crucial to the success of any software product in this competitive world. Though automation testing is the rage these days, unfortunately, it cannot be applied in all the scenarios. No matter how good automated tests are, you cannot automate everything. Manual tests play a pivotal role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automation. Hence, there is still a lot of demand for people with skills relevant to manual testing. This Manual Testing Interview Questions article is the perfect guide for you to master software testing.
Let’s begin by taking a look at the most frequently asked Manual Testing Interview Questions.
|Quality Control||Quality Assurance|
Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders
Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques, and processes used to create quality deliverables are applied correctly.
Software Testing is a process used to identify the correctness, completeness and the quality of developed software. It includes a series of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software so that it could be corrected before the product is released to the market.
Q3. Why is Software Testing Required?
Q4. What are the two main categories of software testing?
Software testing is a huge domain but it can be broadly categorized into two areas such as :
Quality control is a product-oriented approach of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders.
Different types of manual testing are;
Q7. Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.
Beta Testing – It is performed by real users of the software application in a real environment. Beta Testing is also a type of user acceptance testing.
Q8. What are the different levels of manual testing?
Four levels of manual testing are:
Unit testing – It is a way of testing the smallest piece of code referred to as a unit that can be logically isolated in a system. It is mainly focused on the functional correctness of the standalone module.
Integration Testing – It is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested to verify if they are working as they intend to when integrated. The main aim here is to test the interface between the modules.
System Testing – In system testing all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. There are dozens of types of system testing, including usability testing, regression testing, and functional testing.
The testbed is an environment configured for testing. It is an environment used for testing an application, including the hardware as well as any software needed to run the program to be tested. It consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.
Q10. Explain the procedure for manual testing?
The manual testing process comprises the following steps:
Q11. What is the test case?
A test case is a document which has a set of conditions or actions that are performed on the software application in order to verify the expected functionality of the feature.
Test cases describe a specific idea that is to be tested, without detailing the exact steps to be taken or data to be used. For example, in a test case, you document something like ‘Test if coupons can be applied on actual price‘.
Q12. What is API testing?
API testing is a type of software testing where application programming interfaces (APIs) are tested to determine if they meet expectations for functionality, reliability, performance, and security. In simple terms, API testing is intended to reveal bugs, inconsistencies or deviations from the expected behavior of an API.
Commonly, applications have three separate layers:
API testing is performed at the most critical layer of software architecture, the Business Layer.
Q13. What’s the difference between verification and validation in testing?
It is a static analysis technique. Here, testing is done without executing the code. Examples include – Reviews, Inspection, and walkthrough.
It is a dynamic analysis technique where testing is done by executing the code. Examples include functional and non-functional testing techniques.
Q14. What’s the difference between a bug and a defect?
A bug is a just fault in the software that’s detected during testing time. A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live.
Q15.What are the advantages of manual testing?
Merits of manual testing are:
Q16.What are the drawbacks of manual testing?
De-merits of manual testing are:
Documentation plays a critical role in achieving effective software testing. Details like requirement specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented.
Documenting the test cases will facilitate you to estimate the testing effort you will need along with test coverage and tracking and tracing requirement. Some commonly applied documentation artifacts associated with software testing are:
With this, we have completed basic question based on manual testing. In the next part of this Manual Testing Interview Questions article, let’s discuss advanced level questions related to manual testing.
Q18. What is the difference between manual testing and automation testing?
In manual testing, the accuracy, and reliability of test cases are low, as manual tests are more prone to human error.
Automated testing, on the other hand, is more reliable as tools and scripts are used to perform tests.
The time required for manual testing is high as human resources perform all the tasks.
The time required is comparatively low as software tool execute the tests
In manual testing investment cost is low, but Return of Investment(ROI) is low as well.
In automation testing investment cost and Return of Investment, both are high.
Manual testing is preferred when the test cases are run once or twice. Also suitable for Exploratory, Usability and Adhoc Testing.
You can use test automation for Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Load Testing or highly repeatable functional test cases
Allows for human observation to find out any glitches. Therefore manual testing helps in improving the customer experience.
As there is no human observation involved, there is no guarantee of positive customer experience.
Q19. When should you opt for manual testing over automation testing?
There are a lot of cases when manual testing is best suited over automation testing, like:
Q20. What are the phases involved in Software Testing Life Cycle?
The different phases involved in the software testing life cycle are:
|Requirement Analysis||QA team understands the requirement in terms of what we will testing & figure out the testable requirements.|
|Test Planning||In this phase, the test strategy is defined. Objective & the scope of the project is determined.|
|Test Case Development||Here, detailed test cases are defined and developed. The testing team also prepares the test data for testing.|
|Test Environment Setup||It is a setup of software and hardware for the testing teams to execute test cases.|
|Test Execution||It is the process of executing the code and comparing the expected and actual results.|
|Test Cycle Closure||It involves calling out the testing team member meeting & evaluating cycle completion criteria based on test coverage, quality, cost, time, critical business objectives, and software.|
Q21. What is the difference between a bug, a defect and an error?
Bug – A bug is a fault in the software that’s detected during testing time. They occur because of some coding error and leads a program to malfunction. They may also lead to a functional issue in the product. These are fatal errors that could block a functionality, results in a crash, or cause performance bottlenecks
Defect – A defect is a variance between expected results and actual results, detected by the developer after the product goes live. Defect is an error found AFTER the application goes into production. In simple terms, it refers to several troubles with the software products, with its external behavior or with its internal features.
Error – An error is a mistake, misunderstanding, or misconception, on the part of a software developer. The category of developer includes software engineers, programmers, analysts, and testers. For example, a developer may misunderstand a design notation, or a programmer might type a variable name incorrectly – leads to an error. An error normally arises in software, it leads to change the functionality of the program.
Q22. What makes a good test engineer?
A software test engineer is a professional who determines how to create a process that would best test a particular product in the software industry.
Q23.What is regression testing? When to apply it?
“Testing of a previously tested program to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software, as a result of the changes made is called Regression Testing.”
A regression test is a system-wide test whose main purpose is to ensure that a small change in one part of the system does not break existing functionality elsewhere in the system. It is recommended to perform regression testing on the occurrence of the following events:
Q24. What is the difference between system testing and integration testing?
|System Testing||Integration Testing|
System Testing tests the software application as a whole to check if the system is compliant with the user requirements
Integration testing tests the interface between modules of the software application
Involves both functional and non-functional testings like sanity, usability, performance, stress an load
Only functional testing is performed to check whether the two modules when combined give the right outcome
It is high-level testing performed after integration testing
It is low-level testing performed after unit testing
Q25. Explain the defect life cycle.
A defect life cycle is a process in which a defect goes through various phases during its whole lifetime. The cycle starts when a defect is found and ends when a defect is closed, after ensuring it’s not reproduced. Bug or defect life cycle includes the steps as shown in the below figure.
If you wish to learn in-depth about Bug Life Cycle then you can refer this article on Software Testing Tutorial.
Q26. What is the test harness?
A test harness is the gathering of software and test information arranged to test a program unit by running it under changing conditions like stress, load, data-driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:
– A Test Execution Engine
– Test script repository
Q27. What is test closure?
Test Closure is a document which gives a summary of all the tests conducted during the software development life cycle and also gives a detailed analysis of the bugs removed and errors found. This memo contains the aggregate no. of experiments, total no. of experiments executed, total no. of imperfections discovered, add total no. of imperfections settled, total no. of bugs not settled, total no of bugs rejected and so forth.
Q28. What is the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?
Positive testing determines that your application works as expected. If an error is encountered during positive testing, the test fails
Negative testing ensures that your application can gracefully handle invalid input or unexpected user behavior
In this testing, tester always check for an only valid set of values
Testers apply as much creativity as possible and validating the application against invalid data
Q29. Define what is a critical bug.
A critical bug is a bug that has got the tendency to affect a majority of the functionality of the given application. It means a large piece of functionality or major system component is completely broken and there is no workaround to move further. Application cannot be distributed to the end client unless the critical bug is addressed.
Q30. What is pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?
According to pesticide paradox, if the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those places where testers found more defects and might not look into other areas. Methods to prevent pesticide paradox:
Using these methods, it’s possible to find more defects in the area where defect numbers dropped.
Q31. What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?
Defect Cascading is the process of triggering other defects in the application. When a defect goes unnoticed while testing, it invokes other defects. As a result, multiple defects crop up in the later stages of development. If defect cascading continues to affect other features in the application, identifying the affected feature becomes challenging. You may make different test cases to solve this issue, even then it is difficult and time-consuming.
Q32. What is the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?
In general, quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. But again ‘quality’ is a subjective term. It will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. For example, each type of ‘customer’ will have their own slant on ‘quality’ – the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.
Q33. What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?
Black-Box Testing, also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of a software/application without knowing much about the internal structure/design of the item. The purpose of this testing is to check the functionality of the system as a whole to make sure that it works correctly and meets user demands. Various black-box testing techniques are:
Q34. What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?
White-Box Testing also known as structure-based testing, requires a profound knowledge of the code as it includes testing of some structural part of the application. The purpose of this testing is to enhance security, check the flow of inputs/outputs through application and to improve design and usability. Various white-box testing techniques are:
Q35. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?
Experienced-based testing is all about discovery, investigation, and learning. The tester constantly studies and analyzes the product and accordingly applies his skills, traits, and experience to develop test strategy and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:
Q36.What is a top-down and bottom-up approach in testing?
Top-Down – Testing happens from top to bottom. That is, high-level modules are tested first and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are incorporated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.
Bottom-Up – Testing happens from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and afterward high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are coordinated to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.
Q37. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?
|Features||Smoke Testing||Sanity Testing|
|Tests are executed on initial builds of software product||Tests are done on builds that have passed smoke tests & rounds of regression tests|
Motive of Testing
|To measure the stability of the newly created build to face off more rigorous testing||To evaluate rationality & originality of the functionalities of software builds|
|Is a subset of acceptance testing||Is a subset of regression testing|
|Involves documentation and scripting work||Doesn’t emphasize any sort of documentation|
|Shallow & wide approach to include all the major functionalities without going too deep||Narrow & deep approach involving detailed testing of functionalities and features|
|Executed by developers or testers||Executed by testers|
Q38. What is the difference between static testing and dynamic testing?
|Static Testing||Dynamic Testing|
Static Testing is a white box testing technique, it includes the process of exploring the records to recognize the imperfections in the very early stages of SDLC.
Dynamic testing includes the process of execution of code and is done at the later stage of the software development lifecycle. It validates and approves the output with the expected results.
Static Testing is implemented at the verification stage.
Dynamic testing starts during the validation stage.
Static testing is performed before the code deployment.
Dynamic testing is performed after the code deployment
The code error detection and execution of the program is not a concern in this type of testing.
Execution of code is necessary for dynamic testing.
Q39. How will you determine when to stop testing?
Deciding when to stop testing can be quite difficult. Many modern software applications are so complex and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Some common factors in deciding when to stop testing are:
Q40. What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?
Often testers encounter a bug that can’t be resolved at all. In such situations, the best bet is for testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can cause severe problems such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.
Q41. How you test a product if the requirements are yet to freeze?
It’s possible that a requirement stack is not available for a piece of product. It might take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected functionality, and it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isn’t necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed. Else, create a test plan based on the assumptions made about the product. But make sure you get all assumptions well documented in the test plan.
Q42. What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed testing processes are impossible? What to do in such situations?
This is a very common problem in the software industry, especially considering the new technologies that are being incorporated when developing the product. There is no easy solution in this situation, you could:
• Hire good and skilled people
• Management should ‘ruthlessly prioritize’ quality issues and maintain focus on the customer
• Everyone in the organization should be clear on what ‘quality’ means to the end-user
Q43. How do you know the code has met specifications?
‘Good code’ is code that works, that is bug-free, and is readable and maintainable. Most organizations have coding ‘standards’ that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about what’s best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are a lot of tools like traceability matrix which ensures the requirements are mapped to the test cases. And when the execution of all test cases finishes with a success, it indicates that the code has met the requirement.
Q44. What are the cases when you’ll consider to choose automated testing over manual testing?
Automated testing can be considered over manual testing during the following situations:
Q45. What is ‘configuration management’?
Every high-functioning organization has a “master plan” that details how they are supposed to operate and accomplish tasks. Software development and testing are no different. Software configuration management (SCM) is a set of processes, policies, and tools that organize, control, coordinate, and track:
Q46. Is it true that we can do system testing at any stage?
In system testing, all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. So, no. The system testing must start only if all units are in place and are working properly. System testing usually happens before the UAT (User Acceptance Testing).
Q47. What are some best practices that you should follow when writing test cases?
Few guidelines that you need to follow while writing test cases are:
Q48. Why is it that the boundary value analysis provides good test cases?
The reason why boundary value analysis provides good test cases is that usually, a greater number of errors occur at the boundaries rather than in the center of the input domain for a test.
In boundary value analysis technique test cases are designed to include values at the boundaries. If the input is within the boundary value, it is considered ‘Positive testing.’ If the input is outside of the boundary value, it is considered ‘Negative testing.’ It includes maximum, minimum, inside or outside edge, typical values or error values.
Let’s suppose you are testing for an input box that accepts numbers from ’01 to 10′.
Using the boundary value analysis we can define three classes of test cases:
So the boundary values would be 0, 1, 2 and 9, 10, 11.
Q49.Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly or in other terms 100% bug-free?
It is impossible to build a software product which is 100% bug-free. You can just minimize the error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result.
Here are the two principal reasons that make it impossible to test a program entirely.
Q50. Can automation testing replace manual testing?
Automation testing isn’t a replacement for manual testing. No matter how good automated tests are, you cannot automate everything. Manual tests play an important role in software development and come in handy whenever you have a case where you cannot use automation. Automated and manual testing each have their own strengths and weaknesses. Manual testing helps us to understand the entire problem and explore other angles of tests with more flexibility. On the other hand, automated testing helps save time in the long run by accomplishing a large number of surface-level tests in a short time.
That’s it, folks! With this, we have reached the end of this ‘Manual Testing Interview Questions’. You could also take a look at Automation Testing Interview Questions while you’re at it.
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