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In Selenium WebDriver, in order to interact with a web element such as a click, or type something, we need to first locate the elements. One of the most important tasks of a test automation engineer is to be able to identify different elements on the webpage. There are several element locators but, locating elements using CSS Selectors is the preferred way as it is faster than XPath.
I hope you guys must have understood how to locate elements on the web page using XPath and the plugin which helps in locating the XPath, ChroPath which are widely used element locators in Selenium. So, in this article, we’ll see how CSS takes the front line in finding an element.
Below are the topics we’ll be covering in this blog:
So let’s begin the discussion learning about what are the element locators in Selenium and why is it of such soaring importance.
Locating elements is indeed a nightmare because of the complexity of finding a web element in the webpage and them. To simplify this task, we use something known as locators in Selenium.
Locators are defined as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. It is basically a command that tells the Selenium IDE which GUI elements like – Text Box, Buttons, Check Boxes, etc. it needs to operate on.
Finding correct GUI elements is considered as a prerequisite for creating an automation script but, accurate identification of GUI elements is much more difficult than it sounds. Sometimes, you might even end up working with incorrect GUI elements or no elements at all! Hence, using the right locator ensures that the tests are faster, more reliable or has lower maintenance.
This helps us understand what Selenium can actually do. Now that you’ve understood what are element locators, let’s dive deeper and understand the various types of locators in Selenium.
There is a distinct range of web elements such as text box, check box, drop down menu, radio button, etc. It requires an effective and accurate approach to identify these elements. Thereby, you can propound that with an increase in the effectiveness of locator, the stability of the automation script will increase.
In order to identify web elements accurately and precisely, Selenium makes use of different types of locators. They are as follows:
Let’s understand each of them in detail.
Also, take a look at this video on different types of element locators in Selenium.
As we know every modern web page is build of CSS, they define the cosmetic behavior (like size, fonts, inclination, etc.) of the whole page and/or objects in the page. The CSS rules do the grouping by class names of objects to define the combined cosmetic behavior of those objects. Similarly, we can use Object’s id property to define the individual object’s look and feel. We can also use CSS properties to identify objects.
This CSS Selector is the combination of an element and a selector value, which identifies the web element within a web page. The composite of an element and selector value is known as the Selector Pattern. This selector pattern is constructed using HTML tags, attributes, and their values.
Using CSS selectors to locate elements has some benefits:
First, let’s take a look at the syntax.
Syntax of CSS Selector
If we have the class attribute specified,
This command helps in finding the element which has a class attribute specified.
<HTML tag> [ locator ^ = ‘value’ ]
<HTML tag> [ locator $ = ‘value’ ]
We’ll perform automation testing on one of the most famous e-commerce websites, i.e. Ebay.com in this demo. Let’s see how this can be done. We will see how to register the drivers for chrome and how to search an element on the page. We’ll consider working on the Eclipse IDE because it is easy to execute Java programs.
For google chrome, you need to install a chrome driver in your system. Now let’s take a closer look at the code. As you can see,
This yields the output
First, this will open ebay.com and then we’ll search for OnePlus6T and click on the search icon.
After this, we’ll scroll down the page.
Now with this, we come to an end to this “CSS Selector in Selenium” blog. I Hope you guys enjoyed this article and understood what role CSS has to play in Selenium. Now that you have understood how to locate an element using the CSS Selector, check out the Selenium Certification Course by Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 650,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe. This course is designed to introduce you to the complete Selenium features and its importance in testing software. Got a question for us? Please mention it in the comments section of “CSS Selectors in Selenium” and we will get back to you.