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Are you ready to join the ranks of the elite and become an Ethical hacking professional? The demand for skilled Ethical hacking professionals has never been higher, and the competition to land one of these coveted positions can be fierce. But with this blog on ‘ Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers ’, you can rise to the top and secure a role in protecting the digital world from the ever-present threat of cyber attacks.
Don’t let the competition intimidate you – with the right knowledge and confidence, you can be the one to land the job and make a real difference in the field of Ethical Hacking.
So, are you prepared to answer ethical hacking interview questions during your job interview? If not, don’t worry. Here;s a list of 40+ Ethical hacking interview questions and answers prepared just for you!
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Q1 What is Ethical Hacking?
This is one of the most frequently asked ethical hacking interview questions.
Ethical hacking involves utilizing expertise in computer and networking technologies to assess and enhance the security of an organization’s systems and networks. These Ethical hacking professionals, often referred to as white hat hackers, utilize their skills to detect vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks and take steps to remediate them in order to prevent malicious attacks.
Ethical hacking professionals operate with the explicit permission of the system or network owner and strive to improve the overall security posture of the organization. Ethical hacking serves as a valuable tool for organizations to safeguard their systems and data from cyber threats and maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of their information.
With respect to the field of Ethical Hacking, an IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It serves as the device’s virtual address on the internet, allowing it to communicate with other devices and access online resources.
Machine Access Control (MAC) is a security measure that controls access to a system or network based on the unique identifier of a device. In Ethical hacking, MAC addresses are often used as a form of authentication to allow or deny access to a network or system based on whether the device’s MAC address is on a list of approved or denied addresses.
Some of the best tools for Ethical hacking professionals to use include:
Some of the most common types of Ethical hacking professionals include
Q5 Which programming language is used for Ethical hacking?
For Ethical hacking, It is advisable to become proficient in all five of the following programming languages: Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. These languages are not only important for Ethical Hacking but also provide valuable insights into different approaches to programming. Mastering each of these languages can broaden your knowledge and skills as a programmer.
A security operations center (SOC) is a dedicated facility that houses a team of information security professionals. This team is responsible for continuously monitoring and analyzing an organization’s security posture, and for detecting, analyzing, and responding to cybersecurity incidents in a timely manner. The SOC team may include security analysts, engineers, and managers who work closely with the incident response team and use various technology solutions and processes to protect the organization from cyber threats.
In Ethical hacking, an intrusion detection system (IDS) is a tool that monitors a network for malicious activities or policy violations and reports or collects this information centrally with the aid of a security information and event management system. If an IDS is capable of responding to intrusions upon discovery, it is classified as an intrusion prevention system (IPS). These systems are designed to protect networks by detecting and alerting potential security threats.
Defense in Depth (DiD) is a strategy in Ethical hacking, which is used for securing valuable data and information in the field of cybersecurity. It involves implementing multiple layers of defensive mechanisms to protect against potential attacks. If one layer of defense fails, additional layers will be activated to provide additional protection. This multi-layered approach sometimes called the “castle approach,” helps to strengthen the overall security of a system. DiD involves implementing a variety of security controls and measures to provide a strong defense against potential threats.
Cowpatty is a tool used in Ethical hacking, to perform an offline dictionary attack against WPA/WPA2 networks that use PSK-based authentication (such as WPA-Personal). If a precomputed PMK file is available for the target SSID, Cowpatty can perform an enhanced attack. This tool is used to test the security of WPA/WPA2 networks by trying to crack the password using a dictionary of common words and phrases.
Network security refers to the use of software and hardware technologies to protect the accessibility, confidentiality, and integrity of computer networks and data. There are several types of network security measures that can be implemented, including:
A network protocol in Ethical hacking is a set of rules that governs how data is transmitted between devices on the same network. It enables the communication between different devices, regardless of their internal structure, design, or processes. Network protocols are essential for digital communication and play a critical role in ensuring the smooth exchange of information between devices.
Footprinting is the process of collecting and uncovering as much information as possible about a target network before attempting to gain access. It is often the first step taken by hackers before attempting to compromise a network. Footprinting can be broken down into several sub-processes, including
A brute force attack is a type of cyber attack that involves attempting to guess a password or key by trying every possible combination until the correct one is found. These attacks can be used to gain unauthorized access to a system or to decrypt sensitive data. Brute force attacks can be time-consuming and may be detected and stopped by security measures such as rate-limiting or account lockouts.
A denial of service (DoS) attack in Ethical hacking, is a type of cyber attack in which an attacker seeks to make a targeted computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users. This is typically accomplished by overwhelming the target with traffic or requests for service, disrupting the normal functioning of the system, and preventing legitimate users from accessing it. DoS attacks can be launched from a single device or from a network of compromised devices, known as a botnet.
There are several common forms of DoS attacks, including
DoS attacks can be disruptive and costly and can have serious consequences for individuals and organizations that rely on the affected systems. To protect against these attacks, it is important to have robust security measures in places, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems.
A penetration test, also known as a “pen test,” is a simulated cyber attack on a computer system designed to identify potential vulnerabilities. It is often used to supplement the protection provided by a web application firewall (WAF) and can involve testing various application systems such as APIs, frontend servers, and backend servers to uncover any vulnerabilities. The information gained from this type of testing can be used to improve the security policies of the WAF and fix any detected issues.
There are several tools that are commonly used for penetration testing, including:
SQL injection is a technique used by attackers to steal sensitive data from organizations. It involves injecting malicious content into a SQL query string, which can alter the syntax of the query in unintended ways. This technique exploits a flaw in the application code, which allows the attacker to gain unauthorized access to the database and potentially extract sensitive information.
SQL injection attacks can be launched through a variety of vectors, such as web forms, search fields, and URLs. They can be difficult to detect, as they often involve manipulating legitimate queries in subtle ways. For example, an attacker might inject a piece of code into a login form that allows them to bypass the authentication process and gain access to the system.
To prevent SQL injection attacks, it is important to properly validate and sanitize user input. This can involve using prepared statements and parameterized queries, which help to ensure that only valid data is inserted into the database. It is also important to keep application and database software up to date with the latest patches and security updates.
Overall, SQL injection is a serious threat to organizations and can lead to the theft of sensitive data, financial losses, and damage to reputation. Implementing effective security measures is essential to protect against these types of attacks.
The recovery point objective (RPO) is a measure of how frequently backups are taken and determines the amount of data that would be lost or need to be reentered after an outage. The recovery time objective (RTO) is the amount of downtime that a business can afford and determines how long it would take for a system to recover after a disruption. These metrics are important to consider in the event of a system outage, as they can impact the overall impact of the downtime on business operations. By carefully planning for RPO and RTO, organizations can minimize the impact of outages and ensure that their systems are able to recover quickly and efficiently.
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Computer-based social engineering attacks are forms of cybercrime that involve manipulating individuals into divulging sensitive information or performing actions that may be harmful to their organization. Some common types of social engineering attacks include
Social engineering attacks can be difficult to detect and can have serious consequences for organizations and individuals. It is important to be aware of these types of attacks and to take steps to protect against them, such as being cautious when clicking on links or providing personal information online.
A firewall is a security system designed to protect a computer or network from unauthorized access. It is typically implemented as a software program or hardware device that sits between the protected system and the external network, such as the internet. The firewall monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and allows or blocks access based on predetermined security rules.
There are two main types of firewalls: network firewalls and host-based firewalls. Network firewalls are designed to protect an entire network and are typically installed at the network’s gateway or router. They can be configured to allow or block traffic based on various criteria, such as the source or destination of the traffic, the type of traffic, or the port being used.
Host-based firewalls are installed on individual computers or devices and are designed to protect a single system. They can be configured to allow or block traffic based on similar criteria as network firewalls, but they provide an additional layer of protection for individual systems.
Firewalls are an important tool for protecting against cyber threats, as they can help to prevent unauthorized access to a system or network. However, it is important to properly configure and maintain firewalls in order to ensure that they are effective. This may involve regularly updating the firewall’s security rules and testing its effectiveness against potential threats.
In Ethical hacking, Vulnerability assessment and penetration testing are two approaches used to identify and address security vulnerabilities in a computer system or network. Vulnerability assessment is a process that involves identifying and assessing vulnerabilities in an application or network. This can be done through a variety of methods, such as scanning for known vulnerabilities, reviewing system configurations, and analyzing code. The goal of vulnerability assessment is to identify and prioritize vulnerabilities so that they can be addressed before they can be exploited by an attacker.
Penetration testing, on the other hand, is a more hands-on approach that involves actively attempting to exploit vulnerabilities in a system. This is typically done by simulating a real-world attack and attempting to gain unauthorized access to the system or its resources. The goal of penetration testing is to identify and validate vulnerabilities, as well as to assess the overall security posture of a system or network.
Overall, vulnerability assessment is like traveling on the surface of a system or network, while penetration testing is like digging for gold. Both approaches are important for ensuring the security of a system and can be used in combination to provide a comprehensive view of the vulnerabilities that need to be addressed.
While answering Ethical Hacking interview questions, you can say that a network sniffer is a tool that monitors data flowing over computer network links. It captures and analyzes the packet-level data on a network, allowing users to view the details of the data being transmitted. Network sniffers can be used for a variety of purposes, including troubleshooting network issues, monitoring network traffic, and analyzing network performance.
One common use of network sniffers is to identify and diagnose problems on a network. By capturing and analyzing the data being transmitted, a sniffer can help to identify issues such as bottlenecks, packet loss, and misconfigured devices. This can be particularly useful for identifying the root cause of network performance issues and for developing strategies to improve network efficiency.
However, network sniffers can also be used for malicious purposes, such as stealing sensitive information off a network. It is important to ensure that network sniffing tools are used ethically and in compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
Overall, network sniffers are powerful tools that can be used for both legitimate and nefarious purposes. It is important to use them responsibly and with proper safeguards in place to protect against unauthorized access and misuse.
A spoofing attack is a type of cyber attack in which a malicious actor impersonates another device or user on a network in order to launch attacks, steal data, spread malware, or bypass access controls. There are various methods that attackers may use to perform a spoofing attack, including altering the source address of a packet or message, altering the mapping of domain names to IP addresses, sending fraudulent emails, and altering the MAC address of a device. These attacks can have serious consequences for organizations and individuals, as they can allow attackers to gain access to sensitive information and launch attacks against network hosts. It is important to implement security measures to protect against spoofing attacks and to be vigilant in detecting and responding to these types of threats.
Some examples of spoofing attacks include:
Spoofing attacks can have serious consequences, as they can allow attackers to gain access to sensitive information, launch attacks against network hosts, and spread malware. It is important to implement security measures to protect against spoofing attacks and to be vigilant in detecting and responding to these types of threats.
The CIA triad is a well-known information security model that represents the three fundamental principles of information security:
Together, these three principles form the foundation of a strong information security program and help to ensure that sensitive data is protected from unauthorized access or modification.
There are several types of spoofing attacks that ethical hackers may be familiar with, including:
Ethical hackers may encounter these types of spoofing attacks as they test the security of a system or network and work to identify and address vulnerabilities.
Q25 What is ARP Spoofing(ARP poisoning) in Ethical Hacking?
ARP spoofing, also known as ARP cache poisoning, is a type of cyber attack in which an attacker alters the ARP cache on a network by sending forged ARP requests and reply packets. This can allow the attacker to redirect network traffic to a different device and intercept sensitive information. In addition to altering the ARP cache, the attacker may also change the MAC (media access control) address of a device in order to launch the attack. ARP spoofing is a serious threat, as it can allow attackers to gain access to sensitive information and launch other types of attacks on a network. It is important to implement security measures to protect against ARP spoofing and to be vigilant in detecting and responding to these types of threats.
There are several steps that organizations can take to prevent ARP spoofing attacks and protect their networks from this type of threat. Some options include:
By implementing these and other security measures, organizations can help to protect their networks from ARP spoofing attacks and other types of cyber threats.
MAC flooding is a type of cyber attack in which an attacker floods a network switch with a large number of frames, more than the switch is designed to handle. When a switch is overwhelmed with this many frames, it can start behaving like a hub, transmitting all packets at all the ports. This can create a security vulnerability, as the attacker may be able to send packets into the network and potentially steal sensitive information.
To prevent MAC flooding attacks, it is important for organizations to implement strong security measures, such as firewall protection and intrusion detection systems. It is also a good idea to regularly update and patch network devices and to monitor network activity for any unusual patterns that may indicate an attack is underway. By taking these and other precautions, organizations can help to protect their networks and keep sensitive data secure.
A rogue DHCP server is a network device that is configured to act as a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server but is not authorized or controlled by the network administrator. This can pose a significant security risk, as the rogue server can offer IP addresses, default gateways, and WINS servers to users as soon as they log in, potentially intercepting all traffic sent by the client to other networks.
To prevent rogue DHCP servers from creating security vulnerabilities on a network, it is important for organizations to implement strong security measures and to monitor network activity for any unauthorized DHCP servers. This may involve implementing network access control policies, regularly updating and patching network devices, and using tools like firewall protection and intrusion detection systems to detect and respond to threats. By taking these and other precautions, organizations can help to protect their networks and keep sensitive data secure.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of cyber attack that involves injecting malicious code into a link that appears to be from a trusted source. When users click on this link, the malicious code is executed as part of the client’s web request, allowing the attacker to steal information or perform other nefarious actions. XSS attacks often target known vulnerabilities in web-based applications, servers, or plug-ins that users rely on.
There are three types of XSS attacks:
To prevent XSS attacks, it is important for organizations to implement strong security measures, such as input validation and sanitization, and to regularly update and patch web-based applications and servers.
Burp Suite is a comprehensive platform for conducting web application security testing. It includes a range of tools for attacking web applications, as well as a framework for managing HTTP requests, upstream proxies, alerting, logging, and other essential features. The suite is designed to be an integrated platform for conducting all aspects of web application testing, from identifying vulnerabilities to launching attacks and analyzing results.
One of the key benefits of Burp Suite is its ability to handle all aspects of web application testing in a single, cohesive platform. This allows security professionals to streamline their workflows and focus on the tasks at hand, rather than having to switch between multiple tools or platforms. Burp Suite is also highly configurable and can be customized to meet the specific needs of individual organizations or projects. Overall, it is an essential tool for anyone involved in web application security testing and a valuable resource for protecting against cyber threats.
Some of the tools in Burp Suite are:
Pharming is a type of cyber attack that involves compromising DNS (Domain Name System) servers or user computers in order to redirect traffic to a malicious site. This can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including malware infections, phishing attacks, and DNS cache poisoning. The goal of pharming is typically to steal sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data, from unsuspecting users.
Defacement is another type of cyber attack that involves replacing an organization’s website with a different page that has been created by the attacker. This page may include the hacker’s name, images, and other content, as well as messages or background music. The goal of defacement attacks is usually to damage the reputation of the organization, disrupt business operations, or spread propaganda.
To prevent pharming and defacement attacks, it is important for organizations to implement strong security measures, such as network security, firewall protection, and intrusion detection systems. It is also a good idea to regularly update and patch web-based applications and servers, and to educate employees on how to recognize and avoid phishing attacks and other cyber threats. By taking these and other precautions, organizations can help to protect their networks and keep their websites secure.
There are several steps that can be taken to help prevent a website from being hacked. One of the most effective methods is to sanitize and validate user parameters before submitting them to the database. This can help reduce the risk of SQL injection attacks. Another effective method is to use a firewall to drop traffic from suspicious IP addresses, which can help prevent simple denial of service (DoS) attacks. Encrypting the content of cookies and associating them with the client’s IP address can also help prevent cookie or session poisoning. Additionally, it is important to validate and verify user input to prevent form tampering and to validate and sanitize headers and other parameters to reduce the risk of cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. By taking these and other precautions, organizations can help to protect their websites and keep them secure.
Q33 What is Keylogger Trojan in Ethical Hacking?
A keylogger Trojan is a type of malicious software that is designed to record and transmit the keystrokes that a user types on their computer. This includes login credentials, passwords, and other sensitive information. The keylogger Trojan works by monitoring the user’s keystrokes and logging them to a file, which is then sent off to the attacker. This can allow the attacker to gain access to a user’s accounts and steal sensitive information.
Keylogger Trojans are often used by cybercriminals as part of larger cyber attacks, such as phishing campaigns or malware infections. They are particularly dangerous because they can operate in the background, without the user’s knowledge or consent. This makes it difficult for users to detect and protect against them.
There are several ways that users can protect themselves against keylogger Trojans. One of the most effective methods is to use a reputable antivirus program that is capable of detecting and blocking keyloggers. Users should also be cautious when clicking on links or downloading files from unknown sources, as these are common vectors for keylogger Trojans. In addition, users should be sure to regularly update their operating systems and applications, as many keylogger Trojans take advantage of vulnerabilities in out-of-date software.
Overall, keylogger Trojans are a serious threat to both individuals and organizations. It is important for users to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect themselves against these types of attacks. By following best practices for online security and staying vigilant, users can help to reduce the risk of falling victim to keylogger Trojans and other cyber threats.
Enumeration is the process of extracting information about a system, such as machine names, user names, network resources, shares, and services. It is often used in the context of an intranet environment, where a hacker or attacker may attempt to gather information about a network or system in order to gain unauthorized access or launch an attack.
There are several different techniques that can be used for enumeration, including scanning tools and manual methods such as social engineering. The goal of enumeration is to gather as much information as possible about the target system, with the ultimate aim of finding vulnerabilities or weaknesses that can be exploited.
Enumeration can be a complex and time-consuming process, but it is an important step in the hacker’s process. By gathering information about a system, a hacker can better understand its structure and vulnerabilities and can develop a plan of attack that is tailored to the specific system.
Overall, enumeration is an important part of Ethical Hacking and cybersecurity. By understanding how to perform enumeration, security professionals can better protect their systems and networks against cyber threats.
NTP (Network Time Protocol) is a protocol that is used to synchronize the clocks of networked computers. It is often used to ensure that all systems on a network have the same, accurate time. NTP uses UDP port 123 as its primary means of communication and can maintain time to within 10 milliseconds over the public internet.
NTP is widely used on a variety of networks, including corporate, academic, and government networks. It is particularly important in environments where accurate time is critical, such as in financial or military applications.
MIB, or Management Information Base, is a virtual database that contains a formal description of all the network objects that can be managed using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). It is hierarchical in nature, and each managed object is addressed through an object identifier (OID). MIB plays an important role in the management of network devices and systems, as it defines the information that can be collected and manipulated through SNMP. By organizing and standardizing the information that can be collected about a network, MIB allows administrators to manage and monitor the network.
Stages of Ethical hacking include:
Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is a type of web attack that involves tricking a user into making a request to a website that they are already authenticated against, without their knowledge. For example, an attacker might create a malicious website that sends a request to a user’s bank website to transfer money, without the user being aware of the request.
To prevent CSRF attacks, web developers can implement measures such as adding unpredictable challenge tokens to each request and associating them with the user’s session. This ensures that the request received is from a valid source, rather than from a malicious website trying to impersonate the user.
Other measures to prevent CSRF include adding a secret key to the request header or requiring the user to re-enter their login credentials for certain actions.
Passive reconnaissance refers to the process of gathering information about a target computer or network without actively interacting with it. This can involve techniques such as gathering publicly available information about the target, such as from websites or social media profiles or monitoring traffic on the network to gather information about the systems and resources on it. Passive reconnaissance allows the attacker to gather information about the target without being detected, as it does not involve actively interacting with the systems.
On the other hand, active reconnaissance involves actively interacting with the target system in order to gather information. This can involve techniques such as port scanning, which involves sending requests to different ports on the target system to see if they are open and responding, or attempting to access resources on the system. Active reconnaissance is more likely to be detected by the target system, as it involves actively interacting with it.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are cryptographic protocols that provide secure communication and data transmission over the internet. They are used to establish an encrypted connection between a client and a server, ensuring that the data transmitted between them is secure and cannot be intercepted by third parties.
SSL and TLS use certificates to verify the identity of the server and to establish a secure connection. SSL has been superseded by TLS, but the term is still commonly used to refer to both protocols.
It is important to note that while SSL and TLS provide encryption and secure communication, they do not provide complete security. It is still necessary to implement other security measures such as proper authentication, access control, and vulnerability management to fully protect against cyber threats.
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The interviewer will likely ask you a series of ethical hacking interview questions to gauge your knowledge and skills.
While answering Ethical hacking interview questions, the first thing you need to do is take some time and understand the question. Don’t answer any question only to the point!
Subjects like Ethical hacking interview questions give you the opportunity to frame and discuss the knowledge that you have acquired. Describe the question, explain your thought process, show your skill in problem-solving, etc. This will help the recruiter notice your skillset.
The second thing is to make sure you have a thorough understanding of ethical hacking principles and best practices before the interview, as you may be asked ethical hacking interview questions about them.
Be sure to practice answering ethical hacking interview questions beforehand to increase your chances of success. Saying the answers out loud can help you be less nervous during the actual interview.
Some common ethical hacking interview questions include asking about your approach to identifying and mitigating security vulnerabilities. So make sure to be thorough in how you approach them. You can search for tricky solutions that can help you impress your potential employer!
It’s important, to be honest, and transparent when answering ethical hacking interview questions, as trust is a key aspect of the role if you don’t really know the answer to a particular question, then it’s fine to say it. Work with the interviewer and find a solution. It’ll keep the interview engaging.
The interviewer may ask specific ethical hacking interview questions about your experience with various security protocols and technologies. Be prepared to discuss real-life examples of how you’ve applied your ethical hacking skills and knowledge.
Having a strong understanding of current trends and developments in the field of ethical hacking will also be beneficial when answering interview questions.
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