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Project Management rules are governed by Project Management Body of Knowledge called PMBOK which is currently in its 6th edition. According to it, there are 49 processes mapped across 5 phases and 10 knowledge areas.
The 10 Knowledge Areas that have been defined in project management are:
Before I tell you about each of these Knowledge Areas in detail, let me first introduce you to the 5 process groups.
Now if you refer to the below table, you will see how the 10 Knowledge Areas and 5 process groups have been mapped with 49 processes.
|PROCESS GROUPS||INITIATING||PLANNING||EXECUTING||MONITOR & CONTROL||CLOSING|
|Project Integration Management||• Develop Project Charter||• Develop Project Management Plan||• Direct & Manage Project Work||• Monitor & Control Project Work|
• Perform Integrated Change Control
|Project Scope Management||• Plan Scope Management|
• Collect Requirement
• Define Scopes
• Create WBS
|• Validate Scope|
• Control Scope
|Project Time Management||• Plan Schedule Management|
• Define Activities
• Sequence Activities
• Estimate Activity Resources
• Estimate Activity Duration
• Develop Schedule
|• Control Schedule|
|Project Cost Management||• Plan Cost Management|
• Estimate Costs
• Determine Budget
|• Control Costs|
|Project Quality Management||• Plan Quality Management||• Perform Quality Assurance||• Control Quality|
|Project HR Management||• Plan HR Management||• Acquire Project Team|
• Develop Project Team
• Manage Project Team
|Project Communication Management||• Plan Communication Management||• Manage Communications||• Control Communications|
|Project Risk Management||• Plan Risk Management|
• Identify Risks
• Plan Qualitative Risk Analysis
• Plan Quantitative Risk Analysis
• Plan Risk Responses
|• Control Risks|
|Project Procurement Management||• Plan Procurement Management||• Conduct Procurement||• Control Procurement||• Close Procurement|
|Project Stakeholder Management||• Identify Stakeholders||• Plan Stakeholders Management||• Manage Stakeholders Engagement||• Manage Stakeholders Engagement|
In order to get a comprehensive understanding of this table, let me now cover each of the Knowledge Areas in detail.
The journey of Project Integration starts with the preparation of the Charter which is the primary bible for any project manager and concerned team to investigate the details of the project. Based on which, the Project Management plan is made and given for execution when moving from initiation to planning phase, after which the whole responsibility of execution starts with managing & direction of the project work, preparation of the project knowledge and facts to be presented across to the different stakeholders and monitory agencies.
In the Project integration, monitoring and controlling phase has a lot of importance with the monitoring and controlling team looking to make the best of the work completed along with the implementation of any change management if required in the due course of the ongoing project.
Finally, the Integration management ends with the closure and handover of the project to the customer with thorough checks and signoffs from concerned teams.
Defining the project scope is a great step towards making the right inroads into the next development and execution of set goals. The scope here defines collecting the requirements of the project, defining the goals and missions that will complete the project diagram and making the right work breakdown structure that will help the team to go ahead with the schedule management plan for its implementation in the planning stage.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is an important step as the main work related to the project scope is broken down into minute pieces that will aid the team via brainstorming and deeper understanding of the requirements. The Scope Management does not have any role in the Execution phase and in Monitoring and Controlling phase, the scope of the project is validated and monitored if the project has been successfully executed as per the first accepted and drawn scope insights.
Time is an important factor for the completion of the project, and it is one of the KPIs that can make the customer come back for consecutive deals with the company and boost the performance and ratings in the industry. Schedule Management starts with planning with the inputs of the Work Breakdown structure, defining the activities that will make the project execution smoother, sequencing the activities in order to help the executor and keep the schedule in order.
Estimation of the schedule keeping different factors in mind – like availability of the team and their skills, customer requirement and project charter information; after all the data is taken into consideration, the schedule is developed & published.
Maintaining the schedule is a big task and controlling it will provide brownie points in completion of the project as part of the Monitoring & Controlling phase.
Project Cost is another important factor that will determine the credibility and effectiveness of the company in the execution of the project in the accepted invoice amount. The steps involved in this knowledge area is spread across planning and monitoring & controlling phases; In planning phase – the cost management and disbursement plan is made for each entity with inputs of the Schedule management, cost estimated and finally the budget for each phase is allocated on a project basis.
In the Monitoring & Controlling phase, the cost is monitored as the project is executed and controlled in case of overheads beyond the given permissible limits.
Overall, a report is generated for assessment and will be used as a precursor for insights and business sense to be captured when performance is being measured from a project perspective.
Project quality is one of the prominent indicators that determine the deliverables, the cost and schedule are directly proportional to the quality and project scope that is being carried over by the final delivery.
Quality Management comes into play in planning, execution and manage & control phases; proper planning will be the key to a great quality that is maintained across all the phases with inputs from cost management and people behind the project who manage & execute for the customer as per their requirements.
In the monitor & control phase, controlling the quality is the key as the customer expects the best while the project is getting handed over for its destination and application.
Resources are the backbone of the project in terms of human capabilities and planning your overall work schedule. The tasks under this knowledge category are spread across planning, Executing and Managing & Control Phases. The work starts with planning the resources from the inputs of cost, quality and schedule management keeping in mind the project scope with special focus on the deliverables.
Next, the estimation of the resources takes place where the availability of the resources is taken into consideration and activity to be assigned.
In the Execution phase, acquisition of the resources for the project along with deployment of the skills to deliver the goals is set as per schedule, managing them to ensure all the tasks are done in time through proper planning.
Once the execution in place, controlling of resources is done to ensure the deliverables are delivered to the destination customer on time.
Communications with different people involved internally or externally is the lifeline for success or failure of the project. Communication could be synchronous or asynchronous in nature where all team members are present or it can be in the form of Email, Dashboards, etc.
This one is spread across planning, execution and managing & controlling phases – managing the communications is the key for good relationship management among the team members, monitoring them is also necessary for regular intervals to ensure ironing of all issues is done in time.
Monitoring can be done via the use of an assertive, active and passive voice that power the language and way the things are being reported back to the customer regarding status reports and meeting procedures followed to reduce friction between the team members.
It is a process to identify the potential risks that will affect your project, analyze them to see how it is going to make an impact for the pace of implementing the project over the planned schedule.
Risk Management tenure runs over Planning, Executing, Monitoring & Controlling phases that are majorly part of the project before the closure.
In the planning stage, Risk Management runs in with risk management plan preparation, identifying the potential risks and branding them positive or negative based on its impact, analysis & assessment of them through qualitative and quantitative angles, work on the responses for the identified risks.
In the Execution stage, the risks are overseen, and action is taken to mitigate the same…, based on the response and monitoring them to see if the insights can be applied for a similar project next time.
Procurement refers to the vendor’s management and here it is purely referred to the supplies that will be affecting the deliverables of the project.
This area is run across the planning phase with planning for the procurement of the supplies from vendors in the allocated budget and quality assured as it will be affecting the deliverables for the customer.
In the Executing phase, the procurements are done and executed for the deliverables and checked for its quality control in the Managing & Controlling phase.
This is an area referring to both internal and external factors and vendors who will be part of the project and ensure good quality deliverable with procurement order from qualified organizations.
One of the most important areas which occupy a great extent of responsibility from initiating to managing & controlling phases. Project Stakeholder Management starts with the identification of possible stakeholders to be part of the project and they are classified as internal and external, the people nominated to be represented in the project can be from the customer side and executor side.
In the planning phase, planning the rights of the stakeholders and their roles are set up as per their engagement.
In Executing phase, stakeholder engagement is managed, and any issues are ironed out with regular communication channel.
In Managing & Controlling phase, controlling the engagement before the sign off is done and ensuring the smooth acceptance of the deliverables.
Knowledgeable areas in project management is a big aspect and it forms the nucleus of the total management plan spread over 5 phases and 10 areas with 49 processes that define the complete life cycle of the project.
Covering the aspects of Integration, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Risk, Procurement and Stakeholder engagement – this covers all the matrix of work and ensures the end to end completion of the project from initiation to closure.
Covering the axis from internal to external vendors, people, and contractors who will be part of the project, knowledgeable areas help you gain insights that will take your organization to upper heights and build competent teams for handling multiple projects with multitasking.
This brings us to the end of this ‘Knowledge areas of Project Mangement’ blog. I have tried my best to keep the concepts crisp and clear. Hope it helped you in understanding Project Management and various other concepts surrounding it.
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